Chapter 13: The Rise of Mass Democracy

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Corrupt Bargain of 1824

alleged deal between presidential candidates John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay to the election, to be decided by the house of representatives, in Adam's favor. though never proven, the accusation became the rallying cry for supporters of andrew jackson, who had actually garnered a plurality of the popular vote in 1824

John Quincy Adams

-republic candidate in the election of 1824
-elected president 6th president of the US
-accused of being in a corrupt bargain with henry clay;clay convinced the House to elect adams as president, in return adams would make henry his new secretary of state

Henry Clay

-republic candidate in the election of 1824
-eliminated from the elections but still had an influential hand in who became president
-accused of being in a corrupt bargain with henry clay;clay convinced the House to elect adams as president, in return adams would make henry his new secretary of state

William Crawford

-republic candidate in the election of 1824

Andrew Jackson

-republic candidate in the election of 1824
-he was a public favorite but failed to win majority of the electoral votes
-jacksonian supporters accused clay and adams of haviing a bargain
-became president in 1828 after beating adams, recieving the most electoral votes

Samuel Swartwout

-the untrustworthy, lucrative post of collector of the customs of the port of New York.
-after 9 yrs, he left the office for england leaving his accounts more than a million dollars short-first peron to steal a million dollars from the washington gov't

Tariff of 1828 (of Abominations)

noteworthy for its unprecedentedly high duties on imports. southerners vehemently opposed the tariff, arguing that it hurt southern farmers, who did not enjoy the protection of tariffs, but were forced to pay higher prices for manufactures

Denmark Vesey / Stono Rebellion

-denmark vesey led a slave rebellion in Charleston, South Carolina

John C. Calhoun

wrote the pamphlet "The South Carolina Exposition" which denounced the recent tariff as unjust andunconstitiutional and proposed that the states nullify the tariff

Tariff of 1832

-slightly lower tariff compared to the Tariff of 1828
-still protective and fell short of meeting southern demands

Tariff of 1833

-a gradual reduction of the Tariff of 1832 by about 10% over 8 years
-By 1842, the rates would be back at the level of 1816.

The Force Bill

...

Society for Propagating the Gospel Among Indians

founded in 1787 by white americans who felt respect for the Indians and they believed could be assimilated into the white society by 'civilizing' and christianizing them

Five Civilized Tribes

the Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, and Seminoles who were assimilated into the white society.
-assimilated themselves by establishing laws, constitutions, schools, and adopting a system of settled agriculture

Cherokee Nation v. the State of Georgia

-Georgia legislature declared the cherokee tribal council illegal and asserted its own jurisdiction over Indian affairs and Indian lands.
-Cherokee appealed and took it to Supreme Court, which thrice upheld the rights of the Indians

Indian Removal Act of 1830

act passed by congress which ordered more than 100,000 Indians (all the indian tribes) living east of the Mississippi to reservations west of the Mississippi.

Bureau of Indian Affairs

established in 1836 to administer relations with america's original inhabitants; indians

Trail of Tears

forced marchof 15000 cherokee indians from their georgia and alabama homes to indian territory. some 4000 cherokee died on the arduous journey

Seminole War

war waged by the seminole indians against the americans for their lost territory.
-the war lasted 7 yrs and took the lives of 1500 soliders
-war ended in 1837, when an american commander seized their leader under a flag of truce

Nicholas Biddle

bank's director who struggled to keep the bank open when Jackson tried to destroy it

Bank War of 1832

battle between andrew jacjson and congressional supporters of the US bank over the banl's renewal in 1832. jackson vetoed the bank bill, arguing that the bank favored moneyed interests at the expense of western farmers

Anti-Masonic Party

first founded in new york, it gained considerable influence in New England and the mid-atlantic during the 1832 elections, campaigning against the politically influential masonic order, a secret society. anti-masons opposed Jackson, a Mason, and drew much of their support from evangelical protestants

Biddle's Panic

when biddle began to frantically call in bank's loans, hoping to illustrate the bank's importance by producing a minor financial crisis

Specie Circular

a decree that required all public lands to be purchased with "hard," or metallic money.

Whigs

-The Whigs were conservatives who supported government programs, reforms, and public schools.
-They called for internal improvements like canals, railroads, and telegraph lines.
-The Whigs claimed to be defenders of the common man and declared the Democrats the party of corruption

Martin Van Buren

-8th president of the US
-Andrew Jackson's choice as his successor in the election of 1836
-"Wizard of Albany"
- had to deal with all the conflicts left behind by Jackson such as: resentment of democrats, vengeful enemies, and US searing towards depression

Divorce Bill

-proposed by Martin Van Buren
-the principle of "divorcing" the government from banking.
-by establishing an independent treasury, the government could lock its surplus money in vaults in several of the larger cities.

Independent Treasury Bill of 1840

-by establishing an independent treasury, the government could lock its surplus money in vaults in several of the larger cities
-government funds would be locked away in vaults; gov't funds would be safer

Stephen Austin

made an arrangement with the mexican government to bring 300 american families to texas when they give him a huge chunk of land

Sam Houston

-ex-governer of Tennessee who lead Texas in a rebellion against the mexican government to gain independence
-forced Santa Anna to sign a treaty in 1836 after Houston had captured Santa Anna in the Battle of San Jacinto

Santa Anna

-president/dictator of Mexico who wiped out all local rights and started to raise army to suppress the upstart Texans which lead the texans to rebel and fight for independence from Meixco

The Alamo

fortress in texas where 400 american volunteers were slain by santa anna in 1836. "remember the alamo" became a battle cry in support of texan independence

Goliad

texas outpost where american voulnteers, having laid down their arms and surrendered, where massacred by mexican forces in 1836. the incident, along with the slaughter at the alamo, fueled american support for texan independence

William Henry Harrison

-9th president of the US
-defeated Van Buren to win the election of 1840 for the Whigs

John Tyler

-vice president of william henry harrison

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