Chapter 10 main ideas
|Why the fall of Rome?||1. Constant incursions by the Germanic Tribes. |
2. Failure of the Empire to pay its soldiers on the borders.
3. A breakdown of the Roman work ethic...the bond that made them so strong in the past.
4. Failure to sustain the three essentials to keep the Empire running smoothly
a. strong leadership
b. strong trade
c. strong administration
5. The division of Rome into an Eastern and Western empire. The creation of Constantinople split the loyalties and strength of Rome, thereby weakening the center of the Empire (Rome)
|Geography of Early Europe||Central Europe had dense forests, that were not navigable. This created a situation in which the movement of the Germanic tribes was going to result in them migrating to the more fertile areas of Western Europe during the later stages of the Empire, taking the best pieces and parcels of land for cultivation, depriving the Romans of it at every turn|
|The Golden Bull of 1356||The edict of emperor Charles IV. Recognized that German princes and kings were autonomous rulers. This resulted in emperors and princes losing a lot of their status, and the election of the emperor was no longer the peoples decision but a group of seven officials.|
|Order of the Garter||was also known knighthood. You had to be a member and it was exclusive. It was founded by King Edward III. Only certain types of people could be in it and they had to be figures that had influence on the people.|
|3 Reasons for Hundreds Years War--book|| 1. Conflicting rights to Gascony in Southern France|
2. Relationship between England and Flemish cloth towns
3. Royal Succession in France
|Hundres Years' War||(1337-1453) The French and England fought for power, land, and other benefits during this time. France had more men to their advantage but England had better tactics. This war seemed endless and was difficult to maintain a well ran country during this period.|
|Why did Feudalism develop?||A response to the lack of authority and general lack of law following the fall of Rome in the 9th and 10th centuries|
|Feudalism||-Powerful land barons(Lords) agreed to give fiefs to lesser lords (vassals). |
-The Lords still retained land rights, but also agreed to provide protection to the vassal
- Vassal provided his loyalty and agreement to send troops and himself in support of the Lord.
-The Lord would keep a portion of the land for himself & divide up the rest among the peasants who would pay for the use of the land crops, animals, or some other commodity.
-Peasant also had to mill flour, brew beer, and bake bread for estate
-Ovens and mill communal-->had to be paid for
|Root Causes of Hundreds Years' War||1. English claim of Aquitaine as an ancient inheritance|
2. French expansionist policy wished to absorb Aquitaine into the French kingdom (Philip VI)
3. Philip VI took the duchy after Edward III had paid homage in 1329. (1337)
4. Since Edward III was the only surviving heir of Philip the Fair, he felt he had a legitimate claim to the throne and had to exercise it if he was going to get back Aquitaine.
5. French land barons wanted to keep personal control of their land as well, and this opportunity gave them the excuse that they needed to get in the way of the centralizing efforts of the French crown.
|Battle of Crecy (1346)||new weapons and tactics were brought to the table during this battle. The English dominated and the French lost a lot of soldiers. This was also one of the first times cannons were used. The battle took place in France, which was also another loss for the French on top of everything else.|
|English Longbow||more advanced than the one the French were using during the Hundred Years' War. It could travel farther and had a much larger range. Therefore, instead of taking the time to aim, they shot more arrows and it resulted in more French deaths.|
|Battle of Agincourt (1415)||Was the victory against the French in the long lasting Hundred Years' War. This battle is also when the long bow was used to England's advantage. This battle was a turning point for the England and the French.|
|Importance of Baltic Grain||Baltic grain was one of the main trading sources of the time. Without it, it would be hard to work the trade routes that were somewhat limited. Since many people lived on the bare minimum, trading offered new jobs rather than just farming|
|Definition: Dauphin||Means: the eldest son of the King of France and direct heir to the throne. Joan of Arc talks about this when she is describing what the saints said to her|
|The Battle of Orleans||marked an important turning point in the Hundred Years' War. The French took control thanks to Joan of Arc. All of England's hard work was put to waste once the French puled themselves together and followed their "leader's" belief to take over the Orleans.|
|The Great Famine (1315-1317)||It was the first major famine that hit Europe hard. It was due to crop failure and simply bad weather. Europe however id not recover until 1322, and even then there was a high crime rate and death.|
|The Black Death||The virulent combination of bubonic, septicemic, and pneumonic plagues that destroyed around one third of the population of Europe|
|Cause of Black Death?||The disease was due to fleas that lived on rats, this was not known until much too late.|
|Dance of Death||referring to the time period in which the Plague and the Famine occurred. Europe population was decreasing by thousands. This created major chaos and no one knew where to turn to for help or guidance. It is called the Dance of Death, because everywhere you went there was disease, famine, or other problems holding back Europe|
|Ramification of the Plague||1/3--1/2 of the population had died by the time the aftershocks were over. Also, people's deaths became less important and it was basically every man was for themselves. It effected about everything and changed the way Europe was forever.|
|The Jacquerie (1358)|| It was a revolt against the nobility and blamed them for all their ills. After many violent acts and lots of fighting, Charles took control over the city once again.|
**The Jacquerie is named after the archetypal French peasant
|The Hanseatic League||-It was a political and commercial alliance formed by cities along the Baltic Sea|
-In Scandinavia, and northern Germany
-Was formed to control northern trade -Monopolized the northern grain trade forced Denmark to grant its members exclusive rights to export Scandinavian fish throughout Europe. established colonies throughout Europe which declined trade in Flanders and France. This meant there were more opportunities for the farmers to take advantage of land and materials
|What were the accomplishments of Hanseatic League?|| 1. Forced Denmark to grant its members exclusive rights to export Scandinavian fish throughout Europe|
2. Established colonies throughout Europe which declined trade in Flanders and France. This meant there were more opportunities for the farmers to take advantage of land and materials
|"breaking the wheel"||This was a form of capital punishment that always killed its victims slowly. It was a wooden wheel with spokes. The victim`s limbs would be tied to the spokes and then the wheel would revolve, while people would hit the victim with a hammer.|
|Avignon||-The papacy resided in Avignon in France after Clement V was elected.|
**This led to many problems because the Pope always lived in Rome.
-With the papacy in Avignon, French had control. -The Roman Empire started to decline because there was less business in Rome and less money coming their way from the papacy.
-It set up a situation for the Great Schism to take place.
|Babylonian Captivity|| It refers to when Clement V moved the papacy to Avignon. |
--During this time, all the popes were under control of the French kings. The Babylonian Captivity upset the Romans and made their economy decline.
|Lollards|| -Were people who followed the beliefs of John Wycliffe. |
-They had a their own bible that was Wycliffe`s translation of the Vulgate Bible.
-They became extremely popular within the Oxford community where John Wycliffe attended school.
|Bretheran of Common Life||It was a religious organization formed in the 14th century. It encouraged charitable work, helping the sick, and preaching the Scriptures. Many of the members were laymen. Many schools were formed by this organization. Thomas a Kempis attended one of these schools along with many other successful 14th century figures.|
|Shared belief/goal of royalty or the common man||To get to the gates of heaven and enjoy eternal life.|
|Lay Investiture||a person not of the church receiving power|
|Importance of Lay Investiture to rulers of the time||They were land owners in their own right and the Emperor (in this case Henry IV), needed people he could trust|
|Appointments of Church positions|| By 1122 there was a compromise|
-- The appointments could be made by the Emperor, but the Church and Pope would guide them spiritually
|The Great Schism||-Pope Urban VI insulted the cardinals while attempting to reform the curia. |
-In an attempt to get a new pope, the French elected Clement VII.
-There were then two popes who both claimed to be the real one.
-This Great Schism separated communities based on their views.
- To try to settle the issue, another pope was elected. This made the conflict even worse.
|Unum Sanctum|| -Pope (Boniface VIII) |
-one of the most famous Papal Bulls ever
-declared the Pope most supreme and that "every human creature" was subject to the "Roman Pontiff".
|Results of Unum Sanctum?|| Philip sent soldiers to arrest the Pope, who soon died. |
-->French influence was so strong in the college of cardinals that a sympathetic Pope (Clement V) was elected who could be influenced by Philp, -->he soon moved the Papacy to Avignon. Thus began the Babylonian Captivity
|Problems from Babylonian Captivity|| 1. Rome suffered as its basis of money was tourism. |
2. many felt that the papacy became a tool rather than spiritual leader and the prestige of it dwindled.
3. The extravagance of the Church (its court was more fantastic than that of the king's), took away from its historic roots, and the seat of its ancient authority (Rome)
|What was rebuffed by the Pope Boniface VIII?|| -Both Edward I (England) and Philip the Fair (France) in the 1290's tried to bring the church to heel with a series of taxes on the lands of the Church. |
--This was rebuffed because prohibited taxation of the clergy by a civil ruler.
|The Pragmatic Sanction of 1438||Stopped sending taxes to Rome, and didn't allow papal intervention in French appointments. This effectively ended the Conciliar Movement.|
|Indulgences|| *Could be purchased to help one`s soul or a family member`s soul already in purgatory. |
*People thought indulgences could pardon their souls.
*The y were really just a way to gain more money for the church though.
|Conciliarism (Conciliar Movement)-||-It was when a solution to the Great Schism was being looked for. |
-In hopes of making the situation better, a new pope was elected, but actually made things worse.
- The election of Pope Martin V ended the Schism brought about by the Council of Constance.
-People began turning away from the church because it wasn`t as stable as it once was.
|Council of Pisa (1409-1410)|| It was summoned in Pisa in Italy to end the Great Schism. |
**The council elected a new pope making the situation worse because there were then three popes. All of the popes claimed to be the successor of Saint Peter
|Council of Constance (1414-1417)||It was formed to come up with a final decision for the Great Schism. The goal was not only to resolve the Schism, but to also stop it from happening again. After all the other popes were deposed or abandoned, the council elected Martin V **as the pope.|
|moriscos and converses|| -These are the terms used to refer to the Jews and Muslims who converted to the Christian religion. |
-They converted to the religion so they would have more protection from the Spanish. -However, they were not completely protected by their leaders because of their backgrounds.
|Vernacular Literature|| -Written for the common people |
-Therefore, it was written in French since that was the language they spoke and read.
- It especially caught on after the invention of the printing press in 1455.
|Merchet||It was a payment made when a daughter was married off. The lord of the woman was paid money so she would be allowed to get married. The lord lost a worker by losing the women, therefore the payment helped make up for the loss.|
|Dynastic Rivalry||During the Renaissance the ruling families of Europe competed for power and territory. Instead of working together they all fought for complete dominance. A lot of chaos was due to the territorial disputes. Europe really needed a strong leader who they could trust, which is why they turned to the church.|
|Four Families Of Central Europe|| 1.Premysls|
|Premysls||controlled Bohemia, Moravia, Austria, and other lands stretching between Silesia to the Adriatic Sea|
|Hasburgs|| - located in the Black Forest |
-controlled Austria, Tryol, Carinthia, and Carniola
|Wittelsbachs||controlled Holland, Hainaut, and Frisia (and for a short time Tyrol and Brandenburg).|
|Anjous||controlled Naples, Hungary, and Poland|
|Most influential Pope of the Time Period||Gregory VII|
|The Imitation of Christ|| Written by Thomas a Kempis|
-It is a book that comforts Christians showing them how to live like Jesus.
-It is considered to be one of the greatest manuals of devotion in the Christian world.
-It was originally written in Latin in 1441, but 6 years later was translated to French.