← Chapter 13 Grade-Makers Export Options Alphabetize Word-Def Delimiter Tab Comma Custom Def-Word Delimiter New Line Semicolon Custom Data Copy and paste the text below. It is read-only. Select All Rise of Jacksonian Democracy 1819. Jacksonian democracy is the political philosophy of United States President Andrew Jackson and his supporters. Jackson's policies followed the era of Jeffersonian democracy which dominated the previous political era. Election of 1824 No one won a majority of electoral votes, so the House of Representatives had to decide among Adams, Jackson, and Clay. Clay dropped out and urged his supporters in the House to throw their votes behind Adams. Jackson and his followers were furious and accused Adams and Clay of a "corrupt bargain." Split in the Democratic-Republican Party (1825) The fissures in the party were fully exposed by the election of 1824, when the leaders of the two major factions, Andrew Jackson and John Quincy Adams, were both nominated for president. Meanwhile, William H. Crawford was nominated by the party's congressional caucus, and Henry Clay, another Democratic-Republican, was nominated by the Kentucky and Tennessee legislatures. Jackson carried the popular vote and a plurality in the electoral college, but because no candidate received a majority of the electoral vote, the presidency was decided by the House of Representatives. Clay, the speaker of the House of Representatives, finished fourth and was thus ineligible for consideration; he subsequently threw his support to Adams, who was elected president and promptly appointed Clay secretary of state. Following the election, the Democratic-Republicans split into two groups: the National Republicans, who became the nucleus of the Whig Party in the 1830s, were led by Adams and Clay, while the Democratic-Republicans were organized by Martin Van Buren, the future eighth president (1837-41), and led by Jackson. Treaty of Indian Springs a treaty signed in 1825 by which the Lower Creek gave up the last Creek lands in Georgia to the federal government in return for $200,000. Eaton Affair John Eaton, Secretary of War, was rumored to have had an affair with Peggy Timberlake, whom he later married, before her husband died in 1828. She was snubbed by the wives of Jackson's cabinet (led by Calhoun's wife). The President wanted to help her because his wife had been the object of similar rumors. This turned Jackson against Calhoun, drew Van Buren and Jackson closer together and dissolved the Cabinet. Calhoun resigned the vice presidency the next year and entered the Senate for South Carolina. Mayville Road Bill Maysville road was a road built within Kentucky and was considered an individual state road, but was connected to an interstate. Andrew Jackson withheld funds from localized roads and vetoed a bill for improving the Maysville road. This was a great setback for the internal improvements of the American society. Webster-Hayne Devate 1830. The Hayne-Webster Debate was an unplanned series of speeches in the Senate, during which Robert Hayne of South Carolina interpreted the Constitution as little more than a treaty between sovereign states, and Daniel Webster expressed the concept of the United States as one nation. Tariff of 1828 a protective tariff passed by the U.S. Congress that came to be known as the "Tariff of Abominations" to its Southern detractors because of the effects it had on the Antebellum Southern economy; it was the highest tariff in U.S. peacetime and its goal was to protect industry in the northern United States from competing European goods by increasing the prices of European products. Election of 1828 The election of 1824 convinced Van Buren of the need for a renewed two-party competition. In the election of 1828, a new party formed & gradually became known as the Democratic Party which made Jackson president & Calhoun VP. Opponents called themselves the National Republicans. Nullification Crisis Southerners favored freedom of trade and believed in the authority of states over the federal government. Southerners declared federal protective tariffs null and void. Tariff of 1832 a tariff imposed by Jackson which was unpopular in the South; South Carolina nullified it, but Jackson pushed through the Force Act, which enabled him to make South Carolina comply through force; Henry Clay reworked the tariff so that South Carolina would accept it, but after accepting it, South Carolina also nullified the Force Act. Jackson veto of the Bank of the US Today Jackson's Bank Veto and the political conflagration known as the "Bank War" that it touched off seem arcane and nearly incomprehensible. While misdeeds among the rich and powerful still garner headlines and incite congressional inquiries, the core instruments of our economic system-the network of banks capped by the Federal Reserve; the corporate form of business enterprise; the very dollars in our wallets, issued and guaranteed by the federal government—are utterly taken for granted. Specie Circular issued by President Jackson July 11, 1836, was meant to stop land speculation caused by states printing paper money without proper specie (gold or silver) backing it. It required that the purchase of public lands be paid for in specie. It stopped the land speculation and the sale of public lands went down sharply. The panic of 1837 followed. Panic of 1837 When Jackson was president, many state banks received government money that had been withdrawn from the Bank of the U.S. These banks issued paper money and financed wild speculation, especially in federal lands. Jackson issued the Specie Circular to force the payment for federal lands with gold or silver. Many state banks collapsed as a result. A panic ensued (1837). Bank of the U.S. failed, cotton prices fell, businesses went bankrupt, and there was widespread unemployment and distress. Jackson and Indian Removal Indian: Policy of removal of all tribes west of the Mississippi River/The sorrowful path along which thousands of Indians were removed to Oklahoma. , 1830 indians were moved west of the Mississippi River. Election of 1832 Andrew Jackson vs Henry Clay +Floyd and William Wirt; Jackson wins by lots 1st x 3rd and 4th party runs.