AP US Week 6-7

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Coercive Acts

Also known as the Intolerable Acts. Several British laws designed to punish colonists for their role in the Boston Tea Party. The most famous of the acts shut down Boston Harbor until the tea was paid for.

Quebec Act

Signed in 1774, intended to reorganize the way these British territories were governed

First Continental Congress

The First Continental Congress convened on September 5, 1774, to protest the Intolerable Acts. The congress endorsed the Suffolk Resolves, voted for a boycott of British imports, and sent a petition to King George III, conceding to Parliament the power of regulation of commerce but stringently objecting to its arbitrary taxation and unfair judicial system.

Olive Branch Petition

On July 8, 1775, the colonies made a final offer of peace to Britain, agreeing to be loyal to the British government if it addressed their grievances (repealed the Coercive Acts, ended the taxation without representation policies). It was rejected by Parliament, which in December 1775 passed the American Prohibitory Act forbidding all further trade with the colonies.

Suffolk Resolves

declared colonial resistance to Coercive acts and announced preparations for a military defense against British tyranny. Most famous of many meetings vigorously protesting the Intolerable Acts enacted by the British Parliament the same year. Decided they would boycott British goods, ignore punitive measures, support colonial government, and urge colonies to raise militias.

Tories

a person who supported the British cause in the American Revolution; a loyalist

Lexington

The town is famous for being the site of the opening shots ("the shot heard 'round the world") of the Battle of Lexington, the first engagement of the American Revolution.

Concord

town in eastern Massachusetts near Boston where the first battle of the American Revolution was fought

Second Continental Congress

Convened in May 1775, the Congress opposed the drastic move toward complete independence from Britain. In an effort to reach a reconciliation, the Congress offered peace under the conditions that there be a cease-fire in Boston, that the Coercive Acts be repealed, and that negotiations begin immediately. King George III rejected the petition.

Thomas Paine

American Revolutionary leader and pamphleteer (born in England) who supported the American colonist's fight for independence and supported the French Revolution (1737-1809)

Common Sense

a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that criticized monarchies and convinced many American colonists of the need to break away from Britain

Declaration of Independence

the document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain

Whigs

The them by which the American Patriots were commonly known, to distinguished them from the American "Tories"

Royal Navy

They navy of the British empire, the Royal Navy began to inspect American ships in 1793 for suspected defects of the British Navy, who they then forcibly placed back into their own navy. These bold actions commonly referred to as impressment, further strengthened hostilities between the two countries.

Continental Congress

the legislative assembly composed of delegates from the rebel colonies who met during and after the American Revolution

General George Washington

He was appointed by the Second Continental Congress as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army in 1775. His ability to learn under duress and refusal to accept defeat kept an American army in the field. At the Battle of Yorktown in 1781 with French troop and naval support, he was able to entrap the British troops and force surrender. At the end of the war in 1783, he was the most famous man in America.

William Howe

during the summer of 1776, he led hundreds of British ships and 32,000 British soldiers to New York, and offered Congress the choice between surrender with royal pardon and a battle against the odds, and despite having far fewer troops, the Americans rejected the offer.

Fort Ticonderoga

American revolutionary troops captured Fort Ticonderoga from the British in May 1775

Battle of Long Island

George Washington and his army are badly beaten at this battle on August 27, 1776. Sorely outnumbered and surrounded at Brooklyn Heights, the 9,500 troops that survived retreated under cover of night across the East River to Manhattan.

Battle of Trenton

Dec. 26 1776; led by Gen. Washington; lasted less than 1 hour; Patriot forces captured more than 900 Hessians with just 3 American casualties; impressive victory boosted the Patriots' spirits

Hessians

German soldiers hired by George III to smash Colonial rebellion, proved good in mechanical sense but they were more concerned about money than duty.

Marquis de Lafayette

He was very rich and noble when he arrived in America at the age of 19 years old. He believed in the liberty that the Americans were fighting for and asked to help. He became a general on Washington's staff and fought hard. He was known as "the soldier's friend," and is buried in france but his grave is covered with earth from Bunker Hill.

Battle of Saratoga

Turning point of the American Revolution. It was very important because it convinced the French to give the U.S. military support. It lifted American spirits, ended the British threat in New England by taking control of the Hudson River, and, most importantly, showed the French that the Americans had the potential to beat their enemy, Great Britain.

Valley Forge

Worst time of the war for the Americans; Washington's men were camped during a terrible winter here without supplies, food and medicine

Lord Charles Cornwallis

the British general who commanded trooops from Charleston, South Carolina. He surrendered his entire army to George Washington after the battle of Yorktown

Nathanael Greene

Nathanael Greene was a colonial general who fought the English in the late eighteenth century-- used fighting tactic of retreating and getting the English to pursue for miles. Historical Significance: Cleared Georgia and South Carolina of British troops.

Battle of Yorktown

Last major battle of the Revolutionary War. Cornwallis and his troops were trapped in the Chesapeake Bay by the French fleet. He was sandwiched between the French navy and the American army. He surrendered October 19, 1781.

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