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controlling behavior

Mei was sent to the school psychologist to be tested. Based on her IQ scores it was decided that she would do well in the gifted child program. This is an example of which goal of psychology?

a theory of personality that emphasizes unconscious motives and conflicts

The work of Freud was built around ________.

psychodynamic approach

Professor Wenches approaches questions about human behavior from a perspective that emphasizes
unconscious dynamics within the individual, such as inner forces or conflicts. It is most likely that she
accepts which of the following psychological approaches?

involuntary reaction (salivation) could occur in response to an unrelated stimulus (sound of a bell)

Pavlov's research demonstrated that ________.

humanism

Which perspective focuses on free will and self-actualization?

evolutionary psychologist

Dr. Mosher is a psychologist who tries to understand how people select their mates. She must be a(n)

psychiatrist

On a television talk show an actor describes the symptoms of anxiety he has been experiencing. He reports that the severity of the symptoms has decreased since he has been taking a drug prescribed by his therapist back in Hollywood. You conclude that the actor's therapist is probably a ________.

observer effects

Roger went to McDonald's to observe people eating in fast-food restaurants. He brought a camera crew
and bright lights, and they all wore yellow jump suits. Roger said he wanted to do a naturalistic
observation but may have had some problems because of

naturalistic observation

Dr. Littman-Smith is conducting research in Kenya into the ways that mothers and their toddlers interact throughout the day. Given the purpose of her study, it is most likely that she is engaged in

The development of a male baby raised as a female
after a surgical error destroyed his penis.

A case study would be the most appropriate method to investigate which of these topics?

case study, survey, experiment

In preparation for his master's thesis, Tan spends some time in the local mall observing the behavior of shoppers. His notes reveal a tendency for people to smile when someone, even a stranger, smiles at them. Later in the semester, he designs a questionnaire that asks questions of participants concerning their typical reactions when someone smiles. He wonders if the face of a person who smiles has any influence
on returned smiles, so he designs a study to answer this question. Which of the following lists in order,
from first to last, the research methods Tan has used?

the fact that the sample is not representative of American wives

The magazine Desperate Wives publishes a survey of its female readers called "The Sex Life of the
American Wife." It reports that 87 percent of all wives like to make love in rubber boots. The critical
flaw in this research would be

strength of the relationship between two variables

A correlation is a numerical measure of the

adult shoe size and IQ scores

All of the following variables, except for ________ show a negative correlation.

there is a positive correlation between the number of hours she sleeps and her quiz grades

Julie finds that the number of hours she sleeps each night is related to the scores she receives on quizzes
the next day. As her sleep approaches 8 hours, her quiz scores improve; as her sleep drops to 5 hours,
her quiz scores show a similar decline. Julie realizes that

a random distribution of points

As a project for a psychology course, a student correlated weight and intelligence scores for 250
students. The computed correlation coefficient was .00. What did the scatter plot look like?

hypothesis

Adaris has always been drawn to the saying "Absence makes the heart grow fonder," and she decides to
incorporate this saying into her research project. Adaris is trying to define absence in a way that can be
empirically tested. She is attempting to find an appropriate

The dependent variable is speed of typing; the independent variables are the keyboard design and the
chime.

In order to increase typing speed Minisoft has redesigned its keyboard and provided a chime that is
related to typing speed. The company wants to know if its innovations affect typing speed. Identify the
independent and dependent variables in this proposed study.

dependent variable

Ken is planning on studying the influence of intelligence on the ability to recall events from the 1960s. If
Ken does not account for variables such as age that could also influence one's ability to recall these
events, age could be considered a(n)

the control group

In a laboratory, smokers are asked to "drive" using a computerized driving simulator equipped with a
stick shift and a gas pedal. The object is to maximize the distance covered by driving as fast as possible
on a winding road while avoiding rear-end collisions. Some of the participants smoke a real cigarette
immediately before climbing into the driver's seat. Others smoke a fake cigarette without nicotine. You
are interested in comparing how many collisions the two groups have. In this study, the cigarette without
nicotine is

In random assignment each participant has an equal chance for each condition.

Which of the following is CORRECT concerning random assignment?

placebo effect

Two groups of graduate students were given rats and were told to teach them how to run mazes. Group
1 was told that they had "very smart" rats that should learn quickly. Group 2 was told that they had
"very stupid" rats that should learn slowly. In actuality, neither group was any different and the rats
were randomly assigned. In spite of that, when the experiment concluded, Group 1 rats had learned the
maze much more quickly. How can that be explained?

participants cannot be deceived or have information concealed from them at any
time during an experiment

Each of the following is a common ethical guideline suggested by the American Psychological
Association EXCEPT

dendrites

The branchlike structures that receive messages from other neurons are called

soma

Which part of the neuron is responsible for maintaining the life of the cell?

myelin

One purpose of the ________ is to speed up the neural message traveling down the axon.

synaptic vesicles

The saclike structures found inside the synaptic knob containing chemicals are called

a chemical found in the synaptic vesicles that is released into the synapse

The term neurotransmitter refers to

synapse

The action potential causes neurotransmitters to be released into the

central nervous system

The brain and spinal cord are two components of the

spinal cord

Which of the following is a long bundle of neurons that functions as a carrier of messages from the body
to the brain and from the brain to the body and is responsible for certain reflexes?

interneurons

LaKeisha stepped on a piece of glass and quickly pulled her foot away from that sharp object. Which of
the following are responsible for sending a message to the muscles in LaKeisha's foot, resulting in her
pulling her foot away from the piece of glass?

peripheral nervous system

The division of the nervous system that allows the brain and the spinal cord to communicate with the
sensory systems of the eyes, ears, skin, and mouth, and allows the brain and spinal cord to control the
muscles and glands of the body is called the

autonomic

Involuntary muscles are controlled by the ________ nervous system.

somatic nervous system

As Molly is walking across campus, a car swerves toward her. Her heart races and sweat breaks out as
she jumps out of harm's way. This mobilization of energy is due to the action of Molly's

parasympathetic nervous system

Malcolm is studying alone in his room late at night when he hears a loud noise downstairs. His
heartbeat increases significantly and his breathing becomes shallow. He wonders if a burglar has
entered the house and decides to investigate. When he gets downstairs he discovers his cat has knocked
over a plant stand. His body begins to relax and return to normal. Which part of his nervous system is
responsible for returning Malcolm to a normal state?

medulla

An auto accident rendered Chris's nervous system unable to send messages for him to breathe, so he is
on a respirator. Which brain structure was damaged in the accident?

pons

Since Jessica suffered a head injury in a car accident 3 months ago, she has not experienced dreams as
she had in the past. She used to dream vivid, active dreams. Which part of her brain most likely was
affected during the car accident which is related to her problem dreaming?

reticular formation

Katie has grown up sleeping with a fan running in her room since she was an infant. This provides
white noise to drown out the television programs being watched by other family members who were still
awake. In an effort to save electricity, her mother has started coming into her room and turning her fan
off after she thinks Katie is asleep. However, each time Katie wakes up and asks for the fan to be turned
back on. Katie is selectively attending to certain kinds of information in her surroundings has been
linked to the ________ part of the brain.

cerebellum

Jennifer has been diagnosed with spinocerebellar degeneration. The first stage of the disease involve
tremors and unsteady gate. In the later stages, she will be unable to stand, walk, and will be
uncoordinated in her movements. This disease affects the ________ part of the brain.

memory; emotion

The structures of the limbic system play an important role in ________ and ________.

hippocampus

The ________ is the part of the brain responsible for the formation of long-term memories.

hypothalamus

Which part of the brain is very small but extremely powerful and controls the pituitary gland?

limbic system

Which of the following is a group of several brain structures located under the cortex and involved in
learning, emotion, memory, and motivation?

occipital

After a head injury a person reports that she is unable to see, although her eyes are uninjured. A doctor
would suspect an injury in the ________ lobe.

parietal lobes

Darla was in an automobile accident that resulted in an injury to her brain. Her sense of touch has been
affected. Which part of the brain is the most likely site of the damage?

frontal lobes

After suffering a brain injury by falling from a ladder, Zack's wife continues to tell the doctor that his
personality has changed. He used to be fun loving and care-free, but he is now more critical and yells at
his children for seemingly little reason. Zack is likely to have suffered damage to the ________ part of
his cortex.

left hemisphere

If Darren's brain is like that of most people, then language will be handled by his

secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream

Endocrine glands

adrenal glands

The ________, located on the top of the kidneys, secrete(s) hormones that regulate salt intake, control
stress reactions, and provide a secondary source of sex hormones affecting the sexual changes that occur during adolescence.

sensory receptors

Cells that are triggered by light, vibrations, sounds, touch, or chemical substances are called

difference threshold

When Ann went to her doctor, he gave her a hearing test. During the test, the doctor presented tones to
Ann through earphones. The tones started at a low intensity and then became louder. The doctor asked
Ann to raise her hand whenever she started to hear a sound. The doctor was testing Ann's

sensory adaptation

In the process known as ________, sensory receptors become less sensitive to repeated presentations of
the same stimulus.

cornea

When light waves enter the eye, they first pass through the

iris

Which part of the eye is a muscle that regulates the size of the pupil?

iris

Light is focused on the retina by the ________.

optic nerve

Bundles of axons from ganglion cells make up the

cones

Receptor cells in the retina responsible for color vision and fine acuity are

rods

Receptor cells in the retina responsible for night vision are

mostly cones with some rods

The fovea is made up of

the vibration of the molecules of the air surrounding us

Sound waves are simply

wavelength

Which of the following is a characteristic of both light waves and sound waves?

to concentrate and funnel sound waves to the eardrum

What is the basic function of the outer ear?

hair cells

Which of the following are the auditory receptors where sound waves finally become neural impulses?

to perceive objects that are close to each other as part of the same grouping

Proximity is the tendency

more detailed in the distance

Texture gradient refers to the fact that texture appears to become

binocular disparity

The fact that, when we look at an object, each one of our two eyes receives a slightly different image of
the object is known as

awareness

Detecting "environmental stimulation" is one way to define

absolute threshold

When Ann went to her doctor, he gave her a hearing test. During the test, the doctor struck several
tuning forks, each of which vibrated at a distinct pitch, and asked her to choose two tones that sounded
almost the same in pitch. The doctor was testing Ann's

opening in the center of the iris

The pupil is the

retina

The eyes convert light energy into neural responses that we experience as sight. The conversion of light
energy into sight is done by receptor cells in the

is elongated

When a person is nearsighted, this most likely means that their eye

motion parallax

While riding on a train, David notices that the trees and telephone poles close to the tracks seem to flash
by, while the buildings, trees, and mountains that are farther away seem to move by more slowly. This
phenomenon is called

movement parallax

You are seated at a small table talking to a friend opposite you who is drinking coffee. As she lifts the
cup off the saucer and raises it to her mouth, the image made on your retina by the bottom of the cup
actually changes shape, but you still "see" it as round due to:
a. good continuation.

middle ear

The hammer, anvil, and stirrup are all located in the

amplitude

The height of a sound wave represents its

amplitude

An increase in the frequency of sound waves will correspond most directly to an increase in

altered states of consciousness

Daydreaming, meditation, intoxication, sleep, and hypnosis are all types of

hypothalamus

The sleep-wake cycle is ultimately controlled by the part of the brain called the

Melatonin

________, a hormone involved in the regulation of circadian rhythms, is secreted by the pineal gland.

depression

Which of the following can be an emotional symptom of sleep deprivation?

REM sleep

What term do sleep researchers use to designate stages 1-4 of sleep?

sleep spindles

Short, rhythmic bursts of brainwave activity that appear during stage 2 sleep are called

stage 3

The stage of sleep marked by the production of very slow delta waves is ________ sleep

evidence of deep sleep (stage 4)

What would you expect to see on the EEG record of a person who is engaged in an episode of
sleepwalking?

fourth

Judith is startled when her 6-year-old daughter, Laura, sleepwalks into the family room. It is most
likely that Laura is experiencing the ________ stage of the sleep cycle.

failure of the brain mechanisms to block brain signals to the muscles

REM behavior disorder results from

Try to nap as much as possible.

Sleep research supports three "helpful hints" to avoid insomnia. Which of the following statements is
NOT a helpful hint?

sleep apnea

Jim is 56 years old and slightly overweight. His wife reports that he snores loudly. What sleep disorder
seems to fit Jim's symptoms?

narcolepsy

Your friend has experienced excessive daytime sleepiness. He is laughing with you and suddenly falls to the ground. Your friend is probably suffering from

REM sleep intrudes into wakefulness

Narcolepsy occurs when

the purpose of dreaming is to express unconscious wishes, thoughts, and conflicts

Freud's psychoanalytic theory of dreaming states that

manifest

According to Freud, the visible, or directly observable, content of a dream is its ________ content.

manifest

A client tells his therapist about a dream of riding on a train with his boss. At the end of the journey, the
boss gets off the train at a terminal. The therapist suggests that the "terminal" in the dream indicates
an unconscious desire by the client to "terminate" his boss. This desire to terminate the boss, if it exists,
would reflect what Freud called the ________ content of the dream.

the cortex making sense of signals from the brain stem

How does the activation-synthesis hypothesis explain dreaming?

People play the role of a hypnotized person; hypnosis is not an altered state of consciousness.

You meet a psychologist who says she views hypnosis from the social-cognitive perspective. Which of the following is the best description of what her view of hypnosis would be?

psychoactive drugs

Chemicals that can alter consciousness, perception, mood, and behavior are called

withdrawal

After taking a drug for several years, Bruce decides to quit taking the drug. He begins to experience a
variety of physical symptoms, psychological symptoms such as irritability, and a strong craving for the substance. What term is used to describe what Bruce is experiencing?

stimulants

Drugs that speed up the functioning of the nervous system are called

cigarette smoking

What is the largest single preventable cause of premature death in the United States?

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