Latin America Exam

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What is considered, "the oil of the 21st century?"

Tourism

Who is the current national leader of Cuba?

Raul Castro

What was the closest the world has ever come to a nuclear conflict?

1962 Cuban Missile Conflict

How has the collapse of the Soviet Union affected the Cuban economy?

It has caused poverty

What is the "wet feet, dry feet" policy and what country does it pertain to?

Cuba - Cubans who get to the US have a chance to stay, while those caught before the cost are sent back

What is the distance between the United States and Cuba?

90 miles

What is the ethnic majority of the Panamanians' population?

Ladino (Mestizo)

What percent of births are illegitimate in the Panama?

72%

Is the Panamanian border with Colombia open to missionary activity?

No

What is the ethnicity of present day Costa Ricans?

European

What is the definition of a Refugee?

Person who has fled their country of origin out of fear or persecution

What is the most appropriate way to refer to people who are in a country without proper
documentation?

Undocumented Immigrant

Is immigration a new phenomenon and political concern?

No

What are push and pull factors? And what are some examples of each?

things that cause people to immigrate or emigrate to other countries. War, persecution, bad economy, jobs, opportunities

Guatemala was once inhabited by which Indian people?

Mayans

What amount of money does the minority of Guatemala's population live on per day?

Less than a dollar

Are Guatemala's social development indicators, such as infant mortality and illiteracy among
the Best or Worst in the World?

Worst in the world

What year did Hurricane Mitch hit Central America?

1998

What is the majority of Honduras' population?

Mestizo

Honduras was once inhabited by which Indian people?

Mayans

How have the Indigenous groups of Latin America been treated over the years?

Very badly

What are the three largest countries (land mass) in South America?

Brazil, Argentina, & Mexico

What did Argentinean death squads protect in the 80's?

The government

What percentage of children in Argentina live below the poverty line?

43%

Where is most of the church growth in Argentina happening?

In the cities

What percentage of Chileans live in urban areas?

86%

What characterized General Pinochet dictatorship in Chile?

Violence and oppression

Why is Chile a deeply divided nation?

Violence. Pinochet dictatorship, severe oppression, exiles, mysterious disappearances

Where is the drug abuse in Chile most prevalent?

In urban areas/cities

What gem has Colombia historically led the world in producing?

Emerald

How many years did Columbia go through civil wars and oppressive dictatorship?

170 years

Colombia's conflict, according to the International Institute for Peace, is among the most bloody
in the world. True or False?

True

Have Evangelical Christians in some cities in Columbia multiplied by twenty times in the last 10
years?

True

What fruit is Ecuador's largest export?

Bananas

What has been destroyed with the discovery of oil in Ecuador?

Amazon rain forest. The economy: rich get richer, and poor get poorer

What percent of the people in Ecuador are Quichua?

40%

Over a million people in Ecuador live in what kind of conditions?

Horrendous city slums

What is the most secular state in South America?

Uruguay

Uruguayans share a Spanish linguistic and cultural background, even though about one-quarter
of the population is of what origin?

Italian

What did República Oriental del Uruguay recognize at the national level In November 2007?

Same-sex civil unions

Up to what percent of the population of República Bolivariana de Venezuela are involved (to
some extent), with spiritist practice?

85%

Why was the gang MS-13 originally established?

Refugees from El Salvador in L.A. for protection from other gangs

What is the definition of the Brazilian word "favelas"?

Shantytown or shack - epicenter for gang violence and drug trade

What are the possible causes of gang activity in Mexico?

Overcrowding, social acceptance, lack of opportunity for higher education, unemployment, and money made through drug trade

What/Who is "Santa Muerte"?

"Saint Death", blend of Catholic and pagan beliefs, popular in Mexico among gang members

According to UCA (Central American University) Honduras is the most violent country in
Central Americas. True or False?

True

What is the definition of the term "mano dura"?

"Firm hand" zero tolerance of gang activity in Honduras and El Salvador

What is the Spanish word for "gang"?

Cuadrilla

Brazil's murder rate is eight times higher than the U.S. True or False?

False. It's 4x higher

Analyses of gangs in Latin America tend to characterize them as a product of the prolonged
political violence and civil wars of the 1970s and 1980s. True or False?

True

Poverty is most prevalent among women, children, and certain ethnic groups such as
indigenous peoples and people of African descent. True or False?

True

What is the most serious challenge facing Latin America and the Caribbean today?

Poverty

What is the dollar amount that is equivalent to extreme Poverty Rates?

$1.08/Day

Do the statistics show that Latin American young people can rise significantly above the
educational level of their parents?

No, the % is very low

80% of the Indigenous People live in Central America. True or False?

True

What do the Bolivians use to help with altitude sickness?

Coca Leaf

What illegal action is a large part of Bolivian Economy?

Exports of coca. Industry and production of cocaine

Who taught Bolivians how to make cocaine?

Americans

What is the Dignity Plan?

Bolivian strategy to fight against drugs

How often can cocoa be harvested?

4x a year

Do Bolivians think there is a drug problem in their country?

No, they blame Americans for the drug problems

Where has the mass production of cocaine moved to?

Colombia

Is the income gap in Latin America widening or narrowing?

Widening

Are Natural Resources in Latin America in abundance or are they scarce?

Scarce

What is the approximate percentage of people that live below the poverty line in Latin America?

14%

What is the biggest factor in immigration?

Push and Pull factors

Which country is the poorest in Central America? In South America? In the Caribbean?

Nicaragua, Bolivia, Haiti

What percentage of Latin America lives in poverty?

25%

Why has Cuba succeeded in providing health care and education for the poor?

They have no military and all of their money goes to these efforts

What are the top three most lucrative businesses in the world?

Human trafficking, arms trade, and narcotics

What are the top three most populous countries in Latin America?

Brazil, Mexico, Colombia

"El camino de la muerte" the most dangerous road in the world is found in what country?

Bolivia

Which country does not have a military and proclaims that their defense is their education.

Cuba

What percentage of Argentineans are European?

97%

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