Art History 1

Created by lanerness10 

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Catal Hoyuk

ancient city in Anatolia, Turkey 6,000-5,900 BCE

Stonehenge

A famous megalith construction in Salisbury Plain, England consisting of a circle of megaliths; thought to have ceremonial or astromical purpose. 2550-1600 BCE

twisted perspective

combining frontal and profile views

Lascaux

Cave with Paleolithic paintings; Hall of Bulls AND Rhinoceros, wounded man, and disemboweled bison 1500-1300 BCE

Standard of Ur

A slanted walled wooden box inlaid with mosaic stones of lapis lazuli 2600 BCE; banquet/peace side, and war side

Victory Stele of Naram-Sin

This relief carving shows Naram-Sin defeating and trampling enemies in eastern mountains of Iran was Stolen by Susa made 2254 BCE

Palette of Narmer

oldest known Historical artwork. presumed to depict the unification of upper and lower Egypt 3000-2920 BCE

Stepped Pyramid and mortuary precint of Djoser

By Imhotep; Massive structure built by layering series of mastabas stacked in diminishing sizes used for burial 2,600BCE

Great Pyramids

Menkaure, Khafre, Khufu 2,500 BCE Massive burial palaces.

Menkaure and Khamerernebty

Fourth dynasty Egyptian statue of a pharaoh and his wife standing side by side. 2490

Temple of Hatshepsut

3 floored temple built directly into the cliff side with colonnaded terraces connected by ramps. FIlled with at least 200 relief sculptures of her. She claimed that her father chose her to rule, and wore the traditional headdress, kilt and sometimes the false beard. One inscription reads, "His majesty". 1473-1458 BCE

Death mask of Tutankhamen

Burial garments for the boy Pharaoh 1323 BCE

Kouros "Young Boy"

Early Greek standing statue. Resembles early Egyptian statues although now naked, and freestanding.

Kroisos from Anavysos

Marble kouros that functioned as a grave marker for a fallen warrior. More naturalistic than the New york Kouros.

Peplos Kore

Votive figure; given her name by the heavy garment she wears; this statue is characterized by her interesting converging planes. 530 BCE

Achilles and Ajax Playing Dice

Amphora painted by Exekias, a master of black figure technique in Athens. 540 BCE

Kritios Boy

Marble statue that was first to show concern with how a human actually stands; Contrapposto 480 BCE

Doryphoros (spear-bearer)

Made by Polykleitos, this is one of the most copied Greek statues; found 4 copies. contrapposto; the ideal male with perfect proportions; stood outside of athletic arenas/training centers 450 BCE

Parthenon

A peripteral temple built in the Acropolis, Athens, Greece. It has slight curve to its brilliant design. Relief sculptures cover east and west pediments as well as all 92 metopes. 447-438 BCE.

Aphrodite of Knidos

Praxiteles was the first to carve the goddess of love as nude. Until the Late Classical Period, women were portrayed fully clothed, so this sculpture was a sensation in it's day. Only acceptable with an accompany story; walking into the bath

Apoxyomenos (the scraper)

Lysippos' sculpture using a new canon of proportions. His sculpture has a nervous energy and makes the viewer walk around the work to see what is happening. 330 BCE

Myron

sculptor of the Discobolos (Discus Thrower)

cella

main chamber of a Greek temple holding the cult statue

Praxiteles

sculptor of Hermes and Dionysos

Exekias

black-figure vase painter (Ex: Achilles and Ajax playing dice) from Archiac Greek Period

Iktinos and Kallikrates

architects of Parthenon

Athena

warrior goddess, protectress of Athens

pediment

triangular space formed by roof and cornice

Isis

Egyptian goddess, wife of Osiris

ka

immortal human essence; part of the soul that continues to live on in the statue

Horus

hawk god, protector of the pharaoh (Ex: Last Judgment of Hu-Nefer)

necropolis

large burial area; city of the dead

pylon

monumental entrance of an Egyptian temple (ex: Ramesses II)

Amarna

new artistic style established by Akhenaton; transitioned into the Egyptian New Kingdom Period

clerestory

a section of a building that rises above the aisles and allows light to enter

Aton

The deity which Akhenaten worshipped in place of all other egyptian gods. Represented by a sun disc.

Temple of Amen-Re

A pylon temple built to honor a god. It has a hypostyle hall, raising the roof to allow light in through the clerestory. Designed with an axial plan, it is bilaterally symmetrical. New Kingdom Period. 1290-1224 BCE

mastaba

a bench-shaped Egyptian tomb

Osiris

dying resurrecting god (Last Judgment of Hu-Nefer)

Ashlar masonry

carefully cut and regularly shaped blocks of stone used in construction, fitted together without mortar (Treasury of Atreus)

Cyclopean construction

stone construction using large, irregular blocks without mortar; also, any large-scale monumental building project that impresses by sheer size (based on Greek myths of giants of legendary strength

Corbel arch

a vault formed by layers of stone that gradually grow closer together as they rise until they eventually meet

Repousse

formed in relief by beating a metal plate from the back, leaving the impression on the face

Relieving triangle

in Mycenaean architecture, the triangular opening above the lintel that serves to lighten the weight to be carried by the lintel itself

Corbel Vault

A vault formed by progressively projecting courses of stone or brick, which eventually meet to form the highest point of the vault.

Black figure vase painting

silhouetting of DARK figures against a light background of natural, reddish clay, with linear details INCISED throught the silhouettes

Red figure vase painting

in Greek pottery, the silhouetting of red figures against a black background with painted linear details. firgures are red background darker. allows more detial and to play with colors.

contrapposto

put all weight on one leg, causes hips to shift and shoulders to counter balance, which sets up potential for natural pose

peripteral temple

temple having columns on all sides (ex: Pantheon)

entasis

swelling on vertical columns to counteract optical illusion of concavity

Peplos Kore

530 BCE, Archaic Period. female counterpart to Kouros. patterned treatment of hair, archaic smile, arms attached to side. women are never portrayed nude.

Polykleitos

Greek Classical Sculptor; devised mathematical formula for representing the perfect male body; famous work=Doryphoros (bronze statue of young man holding spear)

Kritios Boy

Marble statue that was first to show concern with how a human actually stands, Contrapposto 480 BCE

Apoxymenos (Scraper)

By Lysippos. (Scraper). Late Classical. Roman marble copy after a bronze original of ca. 330 BCE It looks like he's alive, about to change positions. More "head lengths" have been added here, making him taller, more lanky, less solid as compared to the Doryphorous.

Seated Boxer

Hellenistic Greek Sculpture (100-50 BCE) Heavily Battered, defeated veteran
Nose broken, teeth missing
Appealed to the emotions
Realism
No height of tension
foreshortening
Late Classical Period

Battle of Issus

Philoxenos of Eretria made a mosaic copy of a Greek painting that no longer exhists.- a battle (333 BC) in which
Alexander the Great defeated the Persians under Darius III,
Moment of high tension, Early greek paintings were said to be great, but none remain (Late Classical Period)

Linear B

the name for the script, composed of signs and pictures, in which Mycenaean Greeks kept records on tablets of clay

buon fresco

true or wet fresco; pigments are mixed with water and become chemically bound to the freshly laid lime plaster. It lasts longer but you must paint very fast; while still wet.

secco fresco

Painting on plaster after the wall is already dry; doesn't last as long but you can paint over time.

hypostyle hall

a hall with a roof supported by columns (ex: Temple of Amen-Re)

Colonnades

Flattened rectangular pillars (Ex: Temple of Hatshepsut)

Temple of Ramesses II

He was the last great warrior pharaoh. Four 65 foot images of himself line the front facade. Inside the main gallery is 32 foot pillar-like-figures. New Kingdom Period. 1290-1224 BCE

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