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Ms. McGovern's social studies 28 page packet

13th Amendment

banned slavery

14th Amendment

citizenship

15th Amendment

Can't be denied the right to vote based on race

Literacy Tests

a required test to be taken by African Americans in order to be elligable to vote

Poll Tax

a tax put on African American voters, hoping to disenfranchise them

Grandfather Clause

If your grandfather could vote before 1867, you did not have to take a literacy test

Freedmen's Bureau

Helped newly freed African Americans

Klu Klux Klan

Used terrorism and violence to intimidate blacks and other minorities.

Dorethea Dix

Mental Hospitals and Jails (2nd Great Awakening)

Horace Mann

Education movement (2nd Great Awakening)

Temperance

Against Alcohol

Abolition- Movement to end slavery

William Lloyd Garrison, Fredrick Douglas, Grimke Sisters, Harriet Tubman

Women's Rights Movement

Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, Sojourner Truth, Susan B. Anthony

Roots of Reform

2nd Great Awakening, Declaration of Independence

Abraham Lincoln

16th president; President during the Civil War; declared war because he wanted to preserve the union, when elected South seceded

Dred Scott

An 1858 Supreme Court case in which a slave sued for his freedom but the court ruled against Scott because he wasn't a U.S.citizen

John Brown

abolitionist who was hanged after leading an unsuccessful raid at Harper's Ferry, Virginia (1800-1858)

Ulysses S. Grant

an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869-1877). He achieved international fame as the leading Union general in the American Civil War.

Robert E. Lee

General of the Confederates (South)

Jefferson Davis

President of the Confederacy

Harriet Tubman

Conductor of the Underground railroad

Harriet Beecher Stowe

author of Uncle Tom's Cabin (showed the evil's of slavery, fugitive Slave law)

1861-1865

The period of the civil war

Important events in the civil war:

Fort Sumter, Battle of Bull Run, Gettysburg, Antietam, Appomattox Surrender

Civil War battles took place in:

the south (most battles in Virginia)

Important people of the civil war:

Abraham Lincoln, Jefferson Davis, McClellan, Grant, Robert E. Lee, Stonewall Jackson

Popular Sovereignty

a principle of the U.S. Constitution that states that the people have the to create, alter, and abolish their government. In the mid-1800s, a term referring to the idea that each territory could decide for itself whether or not to allow slavery

Missouri Compromise

1820 -- Missouri would enter the Union as a slave state and Maine would enter as a free state (states get admited my twos)

Bleeding Kansas

Term referring to bloodshed over popular sovereignty in a particular western territory

Kansas Nebraska Act

This Act set up Kansas and Nebraska as states. Each state would use popular sovereignty to decide what to do about slavery. People who were proslavery and antislavery moved to Kansas, but some antislavery settlers were against the Act. This began guerrilla warfare.

Uncle Tom's Cabin

novel about the evils of slavery and the injustice of the Fugitive Slave Law (by Harriet Beecher Stowe)

Sectionalism

loyalty to a state or region rather than the whole country

Compromise of 1850

Forestalled the Civil War by instating the Fugitive Slave Act , banning slave trade in DC, admitting California as a free state, splitting up the Texas territory, and instating popular sovereignty in the Mexican Cession

Wilmot Proviso

Bill that would ban slavery in the territories acquired after the War with Mexico

Civil War

The war in the U.S. that occured between the North and the South

Confederacy

The government the southern states established after they seceded from the Union

Emancipate

To free

Fugitive

A person who is on the run from the law

Copperheads

Northeners who thought the South should be allowed to leave the Union

Habeus Corpus

The right to have charges filed or a hearing before being jailed

Conscription

A draft requiring men of a certain age to serve in the military

Total War

Strategy of the North towards the end of the civil war to devestate the South

Gettysburg Address

Speech by lincoln in which he restated the Northern goal in the Civil War

Emancipation Proclamation

Lincoln's 1863 declaration freeing slaves in the Confederacy

Licoln Douglas Debates

1858, Abraham Licoln vs. Stephen Douglas for senator of Illinois

Suffrage

the right to vote

Whig

National republicans became whigs, Eastern vuisiness people and Southern Planters wanted the government is to spur the economy

Democrat

Andrew Jackson & supporters- Frontier farmers & factory workers in East

Caucus

private meetings where canidates are choosen

Nominating Convention

delegates from all the states choose the party's canidate for president

spoil's system

practice of rewarding supporters with government jobs

Kitchen Cabinet

Andrew Jackson's unofficial advisors, met in White House Kitchen

Tarriff of Abonimations

1828 tax on imports HATED tax- South dislike, North like

Erie Canal

Reduced Travel time and cost of shipping dropped to 1/20 of what it was before the canal, linked the Great Lakes with the Hudson River

John C. Calhoun

the south, supported the war of 1812, did not want to strengthen the national government

Daniel Webster

the north, opposed war of 1812, wanted to strengthen the national government

Henry Clay

the west, supported war of 1812, wanted to strengthen the national government

Monroe Doctrine

1823, foreign policy statement, U.S. would not interfere in Latin America

Industrial Revolution

change in the way goods were produced 1800s in U.S., origanally started in Great Britain

Capitalist

a person who invests in a buisness in order to make profit

Factory System

brought workers & machinery together in one place. Workers earned wages.

Interchangeable Parts

Eli Whitney- machine made parts would be alike-saves time and money

Turnpike

roads on which tolls were collected

Sectionalism

loyalty to one's state or are rather than the nation as a whole

Corduroy Road

road paved with logs

Clermont

began the age of steamboats

Urbanization

movement of the population from farms to cities

The war of 1812 causes

impression of American sailors and sezure of American Ships, England providing arms to Native Americans in the West, warhawks push for war, conflicts between the settlers and the Native Americans

The war of 1812 events

showdown at Tippecanoe, fighting at sea, Americans invade Canada, march in Washington(Washington burns), the Battle of Baltimore, Francis Scott key writes "the star bangled banner", Battle of New Orleans

The war of 1812 results

treaty of Ghent, status quo

Federalists

a party that wanted manufacturing, shipping, trade, wanted a strong federal government, a loose interpretation of the constitution, and were pro-British

Democratic-Republicans

a party that wanted agriculture, strong state government, strict interpretation of the constitution, pro-French

Lousiana Purchase

France, $15 million, doubled the size of the U.S.

Lewis & Clark

expedition to map & explore Lousiana purchase

Marbury vs. Madison

1803, sumpreme court decision-judicial review

Free Market

prices are not regulated by the government

Judicial review

declaring a law unconstitutional

Laissez~Faire

"let alone"-government should play as small a role as possible in economic affairs

Nullify

to cancel; to declare a law null and void

Sedition

stirring up rebellion against a government

Alien Act

A law that allowed the president to expel foreigners

Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions

declaration that states had the right to declare a law unconstitional

XYZ Affair

american anger over bribes demanded by french diplomats "millions for defense, but not a penny for tribute"

Who opposed Hamiliton's plan?

James Madison

What were the two main criticisms of his plan?

thought the plan would reward speculators, southern states had already paid off debt

How did Hamiliton defend his plan?

compromise-move nations capital to the south

Hamiliton's Financial Plan

assuming all state and national debts and issuing new bonds to refinance the total debt, adding an excise tax on luxuries, adding tariffs on imported goods, creating a national bank to handle government accounts and coin currency

Precedent

act/decision that sets an example for others to follow

Cabinet

group

National Debt

total sum of money a government owes

Protective Tariff

tax on imports meant to protect American industry

Whiskey Rebellion

farmers in PA revolted the whiskey tax, Washington sent miltia- test of strength for the new government

Precedents set by George Washington:

title, did not run for 3rd term, cabinet, and neutrality

Executive Branch

enforces laws, appoints judges, and vetos bills

Legislative Branch

makes laws, override vetos, and approve appointed judges

Judicial Branch

interpets laws, judicial reviews, and declare unconstitional

Power of National Government

coin money, raise army/navy, and declare war

Shared Powers

tax and borrow money

Powers of State Governments

education, voting, and driving requirements

The Great Compromise (problem)

How will representation in congress be determined? Small states wanted it to be equal and large states wanted it to be determined by population

The Great Compromise

a bicameral legislature was created. Representation in the house of Reps. is based on population and representation in the senate is equal

The 3/5s Compromise (problem)

How should slaves be counted to determine population? The Southern states wanted them to be counted and the Northern states did not

The 3/5s Compromise

Every five slaves would equal three persons in determining a state's population for taxation and representation

The Addition of the Bill of Rights (problem)

Federalists wanted to ratify the constition as it was, Anti-federalists feared that there was not enough individual protection in the constitution

The Addition of the Bill of Rights (compromise)

Anti-Federalist agreed to ratify the constitution if a Bill of Rights was added. The Bill of Rights was added in 1791

What was the purpose of the Philadelphia Convention and what did it accomplish?

the origianl purpose was to revise the A.O.C.-the result created a new constitution, gave more power to the national government

Bill

a proposed law

Impeach

to officially accuse a public official of high crimes and misdemeanors

Bicameral

a two-house leguilature

Ratify

to officially approve

Veto

a presidential rejection of a bill

Confederation

a group of states or nations joined for a common purpose

Amend

to change

Precedent

an action that is used as an example for others to follow

Unconstitutional

not legal under the constitutional

Federalism

a system of government in which power is divided between the federal government and the state governments

Override

congress' ability to passa law that the presidenthas vetoed

Neutrality

policy of not choosing sides in a conflict

Shay's Rebellion

2,000 famer uprising- sign that the A.O.C. was weak

Land Ordinance of 1785

system for settling a Northwest territory

Northwest Ordiance

government for the Northwest territory

Electoral College

electors from a state to vote for the president or the vice president

Separation of Powers

powers of government are divided into 3 branches

Checks and Balances

each branch of government can check or control the others

Delegated Powers

powers given to the national government

Reserved Powers

powers set aside for the states

Concurrent Powers

powers for the national government and states

Judicial Review

power of the supreme court to declare a law unconstitutional

Republic

nation in which voters elect representatives

Separatopn of Church and State

Freedom of religion/no religion in government

Census

officail count of the pop. every 10 years

Marbury v. Madison

1803, Supreme Court decision that established judicial review

The Slave Trade Compromise(problem)

those against slavery wanted the slave trade abolished. Most Southern states wanted to preserve it.

The Slave Trade Compromise

the importation of slaves would end in 1808

Articles of Confederation

loose confederation of states, weak central government, more power to the states, ended the war, set up a frame of government, (no pwer to regulate trade tax, raise an army/navy make money)

Great Britian:

magna carta, 1215, English Bill of Rights, limited the power of the king

Limited Government

the constitution of the U.S. specufucally lists what the national government can and cannot do

Representative Government

people elect people to run the government

Separation of Power

power in the central government is divided into 3 branchess (legislative, executivem and judicial)

Albany Plan of Union

tried to unite the colonies(failed), A proposal for increased unity and cooperation among the colonies

Revolution slogan

no taxation without representation

Radicals & Tories

Radicals=patriots and loyalists=tories

French and Indian War took place in

the Ohio Valley

Britian felt

they had to tax the colonists to raise money after the French and Indian War

Navigation Acts(18th Century) purpose

forced colonists to ttrade with Britain

Navigation Acts Colonists Reaction

colonists engaged in smuggling and bribing colonial officials

Writs of Assistance(1760) purpose

gave British officials general warrants to search homes for smuggled goods

Writs of Assistance Colonists Reaction

Massachusetts colonists sent protests to London

Proclamation of 1763 purpose

Banned white settlers west of the Appalachian mts. for protection

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