PSY2012 Final Exam

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Philippe Pinel

From france, insisted that madness was not due to demonic possession, but an ailment of mind.

Medical models

When physicians discovered that syphilis led to mental disorders, they started using ____ _____ to review the physical causes of these disorders.

Etiology

Cause and development of the disorder

Diagnosis

Identifying (symptoms) and distinguishing one disease from another.

Treatment

Treating a disorder in a psychiatric hospital

Prognosis

Forecast about the disorder

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

DSM-V stands for?

DSM-V

A widely used system for classifying psychological disorders; but does NOT explain how the person developed the disorder

Biopsychosocial perspective

Assumes that biological, sociocultural, and psychological factors combine and interact to produce psychological disorders. Helps us understand that were affected by our genes, brain functioning, inner thoughts, and feelings.

Insanity

A legal term rather than a psychological diagnosis, and raises moral and ethical questions about how society should treat people who have disorders and have committed crimes.

Depression

____ is a "common cold" of psychological disorders.

5.8, 9.5

In a year, _____% of men and ____% of women report depression worldwide.

Major depressive disorder

A mood disorder in which a person, for no apparent reason, experiences two or more weeks of depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities.

Manic episode

A mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state

Bipolar disorder

A mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania. (formerly called manic-depressive disorder)

Suicide

The most severe form of behavioral response to depression is ______.

Social-cognitive

The ______ _______ perspective suggests that depression arises partly from self-defeating beliefs and negative explanatory styles.

Schizophrenia

Literal translation "split mind"; a group of sever disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions

Schizophrenia

Positive symptoms of _______ are: the presence of inappropriate behaviors (hallucination, disorganized or delusional talking)

Schizophrenia

Negative symptoms of ____ are: the absence of appropriate behaviors (expressionless faces, rigid bodies)

Schizophrenia

_____ manifests in young people as they mature into adults. It affects men and women equally, but men suffer from it more severely than women.

Chronic/process

When schizophrenia is slow to develop, recovery is doubtful.

Acute/reactive

When schizophrenia rapidly develops, recover is better.

Schizophrenia

_______ is a disease of the brain exhibited by the symptoms of the mind.

Dopamine D4

Researchers found that schizophrenic patients express higher levels of _______ __ receptors in their brain.

Frontal lobes, thalamus, amygdala

Brain scans show abnormal activity in the _____ _____, ______, and _______ of the schizophrenic patients.

Delusions

False beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders

Hallucinations

False sensory experiences such as seeing something without any external visual stimulus

Paranoid, disorganized, catatonic

_____, _____, and _____ are subtypes of schizophrenia.

Paranoid

Preoccupation with delusions or hallucinations

Disorganized

Disorganized speech or behavior, or flat or inappropriate emotion

Catatonic

Immobility (or excessive, purposeless movement), extreme negativism, and/or parrotlike repeating of another's speech or movements.

Panic disorder

Marked by a minutes-long episode of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations.

Panic disorder

This can also cause agoraphobia (fear of open places) because people are afraid to go outside in case they have a panic attack

Phobias

Marked by a persistent and irrational fear of an object or situation that disrupts behavior

Agoraphobia

Phobia of open places

Acrophobia

Phobia of heights

Claustrophobia

Phobia of closed spaces

Hemophobia

Phobia of blood

Obsessive-compulsive disorder

Persistence of unwanted thoughts (obsessions) and urges to engage in senseless rituals (compulsions that cause distress

10, 20

Only about ____% of women, and ___% of men react to traumatic situations and develop PTSD.

Dissociative Disorders

Conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings.

Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)

A disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities, formerly called multiple personality disorder.

Antisocial personality disorder

Disorder in which the person (usually male) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members; may be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist.

Frontal

Understanding Antisocial Personality Disorder: PET scans of 41 murderers revealed reduced activity in the _____ lobes. In a follow up study, repeat offenders had 11% less activity in that lobe.

Medical model

The concept that diseases, in this case psychological disorders, have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and in most cases, cured, often through treatment in a hospital.

PTSD

An anxiety disorder characterized by haunting memories nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, and/or insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more after a traumatic experience

Anorexia nervosa

An eating disorder in which a person (usually an adolescent female) maintains a starvation diet despite being significantly (15%+) underweight.

Bulimia nervosa

An eating disorder in which a person alternates binge eating (usually of high-calorie foods) with purging (by vomiting or laxative use) or fasting.

Generalized anxiety disorder

Persistent and uncontrollable tenseness and apprehension, autonomic arousal, inability to identify or avoid the cause of certain feelings: are all symptoms to _____ ______ ______.

Generalized anxiety disorder

When a person is constantly tense, worried, and uneasy for no apparent reason.

Generalized anxiety disorder

An anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in state of autonomic nervous system arousal.

Women, men, men

_____ are much more likely than ___ to do suicide attempts, but ____ are 2 to 4 times more likely to actually take their lives.

13, 22

___% of men are depressed, and ___% of women are depressed.

Axis II

Personality disorders and "mental retardation" belong on which DSM-IV-TR axis?

6.8

The percentage of Americans who reported suffering from social phobia in 2008 was:

Norepinephrine

An overabundance of the neurotransmitter _____ is most likely to be associated with a manic episode.

Biopsychosocial

An integrated understanding of psychological disorders in terms of stressful memories, evolutionary processes, and gender roles is most clearly provided by a(n) _____ approach.

Schizophrenia

_____ is a mental disorder most likely to lead to poverty.

Women are nearly twice as likely to suffer from major depression as are men.

Depression is a serious, common psychological problem that affects many people. Although questions remain concerning the cause or causes of depression, we do know that:

Medical model

At one time, disordered people were simply warehoused in asylums. Asylums have been replaced with psychiatric hospitals, where attempts are made to diagnose and cure people suffering from psychological disorders. This best illustrates one of the beneficial consequences of:

V

Dr. Thibodeaux meets with a client who displays both psychological problems and problems functioning in her daily life. Of the five axes of the DSM-IV-TR, Dr. Thibodeaux would use Axis _____ to assess this client's personal functioning.

Antisocial personality disorder

In contrast to most other psychological disorders, phobias and _____ first appear in childhood.

Vicious cycle

Omar has been diagnosed with major depressive disorder. Omar interprets negative stressful events using a pessimistic explanatory style. His explanatory style creates a hopeless depressed state, which then hampers the way Omar thinks and acts, causing more negative stressful events. Omar's case illustrates depression's _____.

Axis II

John is a patient who reports significant anger, hostility, and overall disregard for people. He has been diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder. His personality disorder belongs on which DSM-IV-TR axis?

Axis II

Personality disorders are to ____ as clinical syndromes are to Axis I.

4

The National Institute of Mental Health estimates that just over 1 in _____ of adult Americans suffer from a diagnosable mental disorder in a given year.

Phobias

In contrast to most other psychological disorders, antisocial personality disorder and _____ first appear in childhood.

DSM-IV-TR

Tonya is interested in studying psychological disorders. If she wants to study the classification system most often used in the U.S., she should read the:

Medical

At one time, disordered people were simply warehoused in asylums. Asylums have been replaced with psychiatric hospitals, where attempts are made to diagnose and cure people suffering from psychological disorders. This best illustrates one of the beneficial consequences of the _____ model.

Biopsychosocial

Dr. DeVries believes that psychological disorders are influenced by genetic predispositions and physiological states. She is also aware that inner psychological dynamics, social dynamics, and culture influence psychological disorders. Dr. DeVries believes in a(n) _____ model.

Phobia

According to data from the National Institute of Mental Health, _____ is the MOST common anxiety disorder in the U.S.

Reliable

In one study, Riskind et al. (1987) found that psychologists agreed on patients' DSM diagnoses 83 percent of the time. The consistency of these DSM diagnoses means that the DSM is _____.

OCD

According to data from the National Institute of Mental Health, _____ is the LEAST common anxiety disorder in the U.S.

100

Nearly 1 in _____ people will develop schizophrenia.

Dopamine

Researchers have discovered that there are an excessive number of receptor sites for _____ in schizophrenia patient's brains.

Hallucination; delusion

In the context of schizophrenia, perception is to _____ as cognition is to _____.

Dopamine

Regarding the treatment of schizophrenia, _____-blocking drugs have little effect on persistent negative symptoms such as withdrawal.

Delusions

Mr. Keller incorrectly believes that people are constantly laughing at him and that FBI agents are trying to steal his savings. Specifically, Mr. Keller is suffering from _____.

2

Maternal famine and second-trimester influenza both increase the risk that the child will later develop schizophrenia by a factor of:

Disorganized

On Sam's admission to the psychiatric unit, Dr. Yardley began her evaluation of him. When she asked why he is here, Sam responded that "the binary code knows the answer to the riddle that is in the middle on the griddle. Furthermore, I know that the horned head of Zeus rises in the early morning." Sam may have _____ schizophrenia.

Viral infections

The relationship between the season in which people are born and their subsequent risk of schizophrenia best highlights the role of _____ in this disorder.

Selective attention

Thirty-year-old Nellie has been diagnosed with schizophrenia. Her thoughts are disorganized, she is unable to ignore irrelevant stimuli, and she often gives her undivided attention to minute stimuli such as a spotlight shining in a window. Nellie is displaying a breakdown in:

Schizophrenia

Mrs. Higgins believes that aliens from another planet have removed her stomach and are watching to see how long it takes her to grow another. Mrs. Higgins is most likely suffering from:

Negative

Ward's mother is frustrated because she cannot get Ward involved in any activities. Most days he sits in a chair with no expression on his face. These_____ symptoms reflect an absence of appropriate behavior.

10

Arnie and Brett are schizophrenics. They are strangers, but they do have one thing in common besides schizophrenia: they each have a twin. Arnie and Arlene are fraternal twins. Brett and Bart are identical twins, but they did not share a placenta. Arlene has a 10 percent chance of being schizophrenic. Bart has a _____ percent of chance of being schizophrenic.

Generalized anxiety

_____ disorder is characterized by symptoms of unexplained and continually tense and uneasy feelings.

DID

In the 1980s, when the DSM contained the first formal code for _____, the number of diagnoses for this condition in North America exploded to more than 20,000.

Frontal

According to a study by Adrian Raine, PET scans illustrate reduced activation in the _____ lobes of a murderer's cortex.

Psychoanalytic

The suggestion that dissociative identity disorder symptoms are created as defenses against the anxiety caused by one's own unacceptable impulses best illustrates the _____ perspective.

Antisocial

When people talk colloquially about "psychopaths" or "sociopaths," they are usually referring to individuals with _____ personality disorder.

Social phobia

Twenty-year-old Trevor lives in a small town. He has always been extremely shy, but lately he has been feeling intensely afraid that others are scrutinizing him. He avoids speaking in class, he no longer goes to parties, and he starts trembling whenever he is in a public place. Trevor seems to be suffering from a(n) _____.

A dissociative disorder

A sudden loss of memory is one symptom of

OCD

Tammy is focused on cleaning her home, which she does for four hours per day. In particular, the fringe on her rugs must be straight on both sides in all five rooms. This takes considerable time and she often adjusts the rugs 10 to 12 times per day in addition to her ritualistic cleaning. Tammy's experience is most symptomatic of _____.

Conditioning

Andrea experiences extreme anxiety when she approaches any lake. Her therapist suggests that her fear is the result of a traumatic childhood boating accident. The therapist's suggestion reflects the _____ perspective.

Cultural ideas of beauty that increasingly encourage thinness

Over the past 50 years, the incidence of anorexia nervosa has steadily increased. This is probably attributable to:

11% less

Adrian Raine studied the brains of violent repeat offenders and found that their brains had _____ frontal lobe tissue than a normal brain. This may help explain why these people exhibit deficits in cognitive functions such as planning, organization, and inhibition.

Anxiety

Sigmund Freud proposed that, beginning in childhood, people repress intolerable impulses, ideas, and feelings, and that this submerged mental energy sometimes produces mystifying symptoms, most notably _____.

Antisocial personality disorder

A person with _____ is aggressive, ruthless, and shows no sign of the conscience that would inhibit wrongdoing.

Phobia

Lilly is extremely fearful of germs. She sleeps in a special chamber at night, wears gloves, and will only eat food that she can unwrap. Her symptoms are most characteristic of _____.

Antisocial

Low levels of anxiety are most characteristic of _____ personality disorder

OCD

Without success, Maxine spends hours each day trying to suppress the intrusive worry that she may have forgotten to lock her house when she left for work. Her experience is most symptomatic of:

Antisocial

A person with _____ personality disorder is aggressive and ruthless and shows no sign of the conscience that would inhibit wrongdoing.

Serotonin

Some studies suggest there may be an anxiety gene that affects brain levels of:

Dissociative identity disorder

Angel has been arrested for grand theft auto. He claims that it wasn't him and that he knows nothing about the crime, and that his alter ego must have done it. The court-appointed psychiatrist knows immediately that Angel does NOT suffer from _____ as the host is never co-conscious with the alter egos.

Bulimia nervosa

In an attempt to lose some of the weight gained by binge eating, Claire uses laxatives and exercises until she is exhausted. Claire most clearly demonstrates symptoms of _____.

A manic episode

An overabundance of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine is most likely to be associated with:

Last for two weeks or more

Major depressive disorder is a mood disorder characterized by signs of depression (e.g., lethargy, feelings of worthlessness, and loss of interest in family, friends, and activities). To be diagnosed with major depressive disorder, these signs must:

Axis III

Your professor asks you on what axis diabetes would fall under. You answer:

II

Personality disorders and mental retardation belong on which Axis?

Biopsychosocial model

Dr. Cobbs believes that psychological disorders are influenced by genetic predispositions and physiological states. He is also aware that inner psychological dynamics, social dynamics, and culture influence psychological disorders. Dr. Cobbs believes in a:

A biopsychosocial approach

An integrated understanding of psychological disorders in terms of stressful memories, evolutionary processes, and gender roles is most clearly provided by:

Axis V

Dr. Sorenson meets with a client who displays both psychological problems and problems functioning in her daily life. Which of the five axes of the DSM-IV-TR would Dr. Sorenson use to classify this client's personal function?

Antisocial personality disorder

In ______________, the affected person is aggressive and ruthless, and shows no sign of the conscience that would inhibit wrongdoing.

Anorexia nervosa

Although she is underweight, Lindsey is extremely afraid of becoming obese. She often checks her body in the mirror for any signs of fat and refuses to eat most foods because she insists they are fatty or high in calories. Lindsey most clearly demonstrates symptoms of:

Anorexia nervosa

Raquel was initially excited to make the cheerleading squad. However, her parents noticed that she stopping eating dinner with them, wanted to help make most meals, and had a list of good and bad foods. She began portioning the amount of food she ate, weighing food, and would claim to have already eaten. Most concerning was the significant weight drop from a healthy 115 pounds to 90 pounds. This case most clearly demonstrates symptoms of:

Anorexia nervosa

Significant dieting, significant weight loss of more than 15 percent of your normal body weight is common in individuals with:

20,000

In the 1980s, when the DSM contained the first formal code for DID, the number of DID diagnoses in North America exploded to more than:

Dissociative identity disorder

Angel has been arrested for grand theft auto. He claims that it wasn't him and that he knows nothing about the crime as his alter ego must have done it. The court-appointed psychiatrist knows immediately that Angel does not suffer from _____ as the host is never co-conscious with the alter egos.

4; 50

PTSD rates vary from ___ percent among those who have experienced a natural disaster, to up to ___ percent among those who have been kidnapped, held captive, tortured, or raped.

Social phobia

If you have an intense fear of speaking in public, eating out, or going to parties, you may be suffering from:

Phobias

People who feel irrationally and intensely afraid of a specific object or situation are suffering from:

Phobia

Although Mark realizes his behavior is unreasonable, he is so distraught by high bridges that he avoids them and takes an unnecessarily lengthy route to and from work each day. Mark appears to suffer from a(n):

Phobia

If you avoid situations in which help may not be available when panic strikes, you may be suffering from a:

Are tense and apprehensive all the time

People who suffer from generalized anxiety disorder:

Bulimia nervosa

In an attempt to lose some of the weight gained by binge eating, Melissa uses laxatives and exercises until she is exhausted. Melissa most clearly demonstrates symptoms of

One half

About _______ of all children whose lack of conscience becomes plain before age 15, lie, steal, cheat, and fight to become antisocial adults.

Antisocial personality disorder

Last week Tate went into the hospital for a painful medical procedure. Amazingly, he did not seem worried beforehand, and he showed no signs of autonomic nervous system arousal. In addition, Tate seems to lack a conscience for wrongdoing. It is very likely that Tate would be diagnosed as having:

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

A psychological disorder marked by the appearance by age 7 of one or more of three key symptoms: extreme inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.

Anxiety disorders

Psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety, or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety

Frontal

Research finds reduced activity in which brain lobes during antisocial personality disorder?

Reexperiencing, avoidance of stimuli, and increased arousal

What are the three clusters of PTSD?

Psychological disorder

A "harmful dysfunction" in which behavior is judged to be a:

Atypical

Not enough in itself

Disturbing

Varies with time and culture

Maladaptive

Harmful

Unjustifiable

Sometimes there is just a good reason

Depressed

Explanatory style plays a major role in becoming ______.

Stressful experiences, negative explanatory style, depressed mood, cognitive and behavioral changes

What is the depression cycle?

Daydreaming, spacing out, hypnosis

What are some mild forms of dissociation?

Depersonalization, derealization

What are some more serious forms of dissociation?

Dissociative identity disorder (DID)

What are severe forms of dissociation?

Echolalia, echopraxia

Parrotlike repeating of someones speech in catatonic schizophrenia is _____ and the movements are ____.

PTSD

The person has experienced, witnessed, or been confronted with an event or events that involve actual or threatened death or serious injury, or a threat to the physical integrity of oneself or others.

PTSD

The persons response involved intense fear, helplessness, or horror. Note: in children, it may be expressed instead of disorganized or agitated behavior

GAD: Is chronic, lasts for a while, very tense. Panic disorder: Lasts for a couple of minutes, acute, having a panic attack, anxiety is very high

What is the difference in anxiety level and duration for GAD and panic disorder?

Males, violence

Successful suicides are higher in ____, because of _____.

Women, men

Depression rates are higher in _____ than in ____.

Depression, schizophrenia

What two disorders are found worldwide?

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