As an infant, Stephanie received many penicillin injections from the doctor. When she later saw a photographer in a white coat that was similar to the doctor's coat, she started to cry. This is an example of
Which of the following processes occur in both operant conditioning and classical conditioning?
a child doing her homework after she receives her teacher's approval for her behavior
Which of the following is NOT an example of operant behavior?a. a child doing her homework after she receives her teacher's approval for her behavior b. a rat pressing a bar after receiving food for this behavior c. a dog blinking its eyes after a flash of light is presented d. a rat pressing a bar after avoiding a shock for this behavior
In Bandura's study with the Bobo doll, the children in the group who saw the model punished did not imitate the model at first. They would only imitate the model if given a reward for doing so. The fact that these children had obviously learned the behavior without actually performing it is an example of
A Congressional hearing is taking place in Washington, DC. The representatives are discussing whether the portrayals of violence on children's TV shows are perhaps contributing to the violence we see in schools today. The work of what psychologist is most relevant to their discussions?
College students faced with unsolvable problems eventually give up and make only halfhearted attempts to solve new problems, even when the new problems can be solved easily. This behavior is probably due to ________.
An experiment finds that a certain male subject always has an increased heartbeat when he hears a certain piece of music. The experimenter sounds a buzzer and then plays the piece of music. The experimenter repeats this procedure until the man responds with an increased heartbeat to the sound of the buzzer alone. In this situation the UNCONDITIONED response is the:
Classical is to __________ as operant is to __________.
neutral stimulus and unconditioned stimulus
What must be paired together for classical conditioning to occur?
present the tone alone repeatedly
A research participant hears a tone followed by a puff of air directed toward his eye. Later, he blinks when he hears the tone. Before ending the experiment, what could the researcher do in order to extinguish the blinking to that tone?
the sound of the closet door opening
When Casey opens the closet door to get some dog food, her dog salivates. What is the conditioned stimulus in this example?a. A child learns to blink her eyes to a bell because the ringing of the bell has been followed by a puff of air
to the eye. b. A pigeon learns to peck at a disk in a Skinner box to get food. c. Rich saw that when Donna banged her fist against a particular vending machine, she got a free soft drink,
so now he bangs his fist against that machine when he wants a free soft drink. d. A monkey learns to escape from a cage.
A child learns to blink her eyes to a bell because the ringing of the bell has been followed by a puff of air
to the eye.
Which of the following is an example of classical conditioning?
Bobby and Sue were parked at Lover's Lane. When Bobby kissed Sue, his breathing accelerated. Sue always wore Chanel #5 when she went out with Bobby. Whenever Bobby smelled Chanel #5, he began to breathe faster. Sue's kiss was the:
As she walked through her neighborhood, Jodie, a 6 year old girl, frequently saw a large brown dog. She repeatedly walked to the dog to pet it, but as her hand approached the animal, it barked and bit her. The bite was painful and caused her to cry. Now Jodie cries when she sees dogs of any color or size. Jodie's crying when she sees dogs is the:
A negative reinforcer is a stimulus that is __________ and thus __________ the probability of a response.
A child is praised for using his fork instead of his fingers to eat some spaghetti. This is an example of __________ reinforcement.
Elizabeth was given a $1000 raise after her last performance evaluation. Her raise is a:
a positive reinforcer
A camp leader repeatedly hugs a camper after she helps her friend. Each time, the camper is embarrassed and shies away from future acts of assistance. In the example, "Hugging the camper" is
Mary arrives home to find her son washing the dirty dishes left from his party the night before. When she discovers his first-semester grade report on the table and sees that he got straight A's, Mary rewards him by relieving him of the unpleasant task of finishing the dishes. Which operant process does the example illustrate?
To avoid getting a headache, Lory always lets her dog outside when it sits by the door and howls. This is an example of which type of punishment or reinforcement?
a negative reinforcer.
Mom and Dad think it is real funny, and laugh when their 2-year-old, Bruce, says dirty words. When Bruce is sent home from kindergarten because of swearing, they don't understand why he cusses. Now when he cusses at home they ignore the cussing (they don't think it's cute anymore). Laughing in this example is:
At the National Zoological Park in Washington, D.C., a polar bear suffered a broken tooth, and keepers needed a safe way of treating the problem. The bear was rewarded first for sticking its nose through a slot in the cage door, then for allowing a keeper to lift its lip and touch its teeth. Finally, a veterinarian was able to treat the damaged tooth while the bear waited placidly for its familiar reward. This is an example of __________.
The 5-year-old of two very busy parents has been throwing tantrums. Whenever the child goes off the deep end, one or both of his parents immediately come to his side and fuss over and cajole him. Nevertheless, his tantrums do not diminish; they even seem to increase. We may assume that his parents' fussing over him serves as a __________.
A child is scolded for using his fingers instead of his fork to eat some spaghetti. The scolding stops when he picks up his fork. This is an example of __________ reinforcement.
Which of the following is a primary reinforcer?a. grades
b. water c. money d. recognition
John's heart has been conditioned to beat rapidly whenever he smells Windsong perfume on a woman. However, John's heart also races when he smells Chanel #5 and other perfumes. This illustrates:
This is the first exam you have ever taken in Professor Smith's class. You know nothing about her tests, and she has never done anything harmful to you or anyone else. Nonetheless, you are anxious about the test. Your anxiety in this situation is an example of:
Corky's mouth waters when he sees Ball Park Franks, but not when he sees other brands of franks. This response is known as:
Which schedule of reinforcement is programmed into slot machines?
The only vending machine in your dorm is notorious for delivering its merchandise only occasionally when people put money in it. This is most similar to a __________ schedule of reinforcement.
Your professor has informed you at the beginning of the term that you will have eight tests--but they will all be unannounced. This is most similar to a __________ reinforcement schedule.
Perry works at a job where he is paid by commission. For every car Perry sells, he gets 10% of the profits. Perry is being reinforced on a __________ schedule.
In order to get her 2nd grade students to memorize the poem written on the chalkboard, Mrs. Thyberg gives the students stickers for each poem they can recite from memory. After earning 5 stickers, a student gets to pick a prize out of the goody box. Mrs. Thyberg is using (a) ________ to modify the children's behaviors.
A young girl is just learning to dress herself. At first, the parents call her a "big girl" just for putting on her clothes "frontwards," even if they are not buttoned. Then, they call her a "big girl" if she tries to button them--even if the buttons are not in the right holes. Then, they call her a "big girl" only if she buttons them correctly. They have been using
A school issues tokens to the children for good behavior. This issue of a token is an example of
Shaquin finished his term paper and handed it in. As he walked out of the classroom, he realized that there were a few more things he should have included in the paper. Shaquin's problem is the ________ component of memory.
echoic sensory memory
Suzy looks up from her lunch, realizing that Jacques has just said something to her. What was it? Oh, yes, he has just asked her if she wants to go to the movies. Suzy's ability to retrieve what Jacques said is due to her ________.
Bethany is trying to focus on a conversation across the room during a party she is attending. This is because she thinks she heard her name above the din of the conversation. Her ability to hear her name is due to the mechanism of ________.
Loni is asked to memorize the letters I K T E A L N in no particular order. She memorizes them by reorganizing them into the words INK and LATE. This tactic is called ________.
7, plus or minus 2
In the 1950s, George Miller estimated the number of items that could be stored in short-term memory to be the magic number ________.
You try to remember a phone number by repeating it over and over to yourself. What type of rehearsal are you using?
________ rehearsal results in a more lasting memory and promotes the transfer of information to long- term memory compared to ________ rehearsal.
Which memory system has an unlimited capacity and can keep information for hours or decades?
You are learning a list of items for a test by relating the items to each other and to information that you already have stored in memory. Which type of rehearsal are you using?
Declarative memories are to ________ memories as procedural memories are to ________ memories.
Someone asks you to name the twenty-second president of the United States, but you can't remember. To aid your memory, the person then tells you that the president's name is the same as that of a large city on Lake Erie. Upon hearing the hint, you instantly realize that Grover Cleveland is the answer. In this situation, the hint acted as a(n) ________.
All of these are examples that use recall.
Which of the following is an example of a test using recall?a. short answer
b. essay c. fill-in-the-blank d. All of these are examples that use recall.
the tip-of-the-tongue effect
When the sound of the word is the aspect that cannot be retrieved, leaving only the feeling of knowing the word without the ability to pronounce it, this is known as ________.
serial position effect
Moishe can remember only the first two items and the last two items on the grocery list that his wife just read to him over the phone. The other five items in between are gone. This is an example of the ________.
When given a list of items to remember, people tend to do better at recalling the first items on the list than the middle of the list. This is known as the ________.
both multiple choice and matching
Examples of tests that use recognition are ________.
a flashbulb memory
Many middle-aged adults can vividly recall where they were and what they were doing the day that John F. Kennedy was assassinated, although they cannot remember what they were doing the day before he was assassinated. This is an example of ________.
It's Thanksgiving and the whole family has gotten together. You start to reminisce about your childhood and get into an argument with your brother. Both of you claim that you were the innocent victim of the other. This is an example of ________.
Shalissa has two exams today. One is in French and the other is in history. Last night she studied French before history. When she gets to her history test, all she can remember is French! Shalissa's memory is suffering from ________.
Malcolm, aged 35, is severely depressed. Because of this he is given electroconvulsive shock therapy. After treatment, he is sent home and does much better. However, his TV-watching behavior is strange. Malcolm thinks that last year's episodes of his favorite series are new. Malcolm is showing signs of ________.
The passing of time causes forgetting according to __________.
Iconic and echoic memory are types of __________ memory.
Unprocessed stimulation from the environment is first held in:
You looked up a friend's address for a letter you wrote. Suddenly the phone rings-wrong number. Even though you were interrupted for only a few seconds, you've forgotten the address. Which memory system failed you?
Information selected from sensory memory is transferred to conscious awareness or:
The state psychology association has invited teams from all the colleges in the state to compete in a Psych Bowl. The teams will answer questions such as "Who founded the first psychology laboratory?" Where is this information stored?
Steve was recalling his first day in college, including walking into the wrong class, dropping his books as he left, and the long line at the registrar's office he encountered when he had to switch classes. These memories are examples of:
On a TV game show, Jeannette is asked to name the state capital of Vermont. This information is most likely stored in __________.
Tim is studying for a test. After seven consecutive hours of studying, he finds he can remember what he just finished studying, but he can no longer remember what he studied five or six hours ago. Tim's memory problems are BEST explained by __________.
the cocktail party phenomenon
Someone a short distance away, to whom we have been paying no attention, quietly speaks your name, and suddenly you are attending to that conversation. This is an example of __________.
Christine has always had an unusually effective memory. She credits this to the fact that after seeing something just once, she can visualize the object in great detail, as if she was looking at a photograph of it. Christine's ability is an example of __________
consciously; episodic memory
Connie lost her keys. She searches her memory for when she last had them, and goes to that place in the hope that it will help her remember where she misplaced them. Connie is __________ activating her __________.
Juan and Carlos are identical twins. Juan was raised by his father and mother, and Carlos was accidentally placed with another family after a "mix up" at the hospital. At the age of 15, both boys "ran into each other" at a football game and noticed how they appeared to be "mirror images of each other." After proving they were twins by genetic testing, the families discussed some of the differences between the boys. Juan is very athletic and intelligent and excels in basketball but does not take school seriously and has F's in all subjects. Carlos is also athletic and intelligent, and excels in baseball and makes straight A's as a result of his strict home life and study routine. Although they are identical twins, what do you think accounts for the differences in their academic performance based on the research?
Which of the following is a special molecule that contains the genetic material of the organism?
Rod-shaped structures in the cell nucleus that contain genes are referred to as ________. a. DNA
Steve was born a male with an extra X chromosome on the 23rd pair. As result he has reduced masculine characteristics, enlarged breasts, and is obese and excessively tall. Which disorder is likely to be diagnosed?
At fertilization, the chromosomes from the father's sperm unite with the chromosomes from the mother's egg, creating a new cell called a(n)________.
The egg is fertilized by a single sperm and then splits completely into two separate zygotes.
Which of the following describes the way in which monozygotic twins occur?a. The mother's body releases multiple eggs, two or more of which are fertilized. b. The mother's body releases one egg, conceives, and then releases another egg in a later ovulation cycle. c. The egg is fertilized by a single sperm and then splits completely into two separate zygotes. d. The mother uses fertility drugs.
The germinal period
occurs during the first two weeks after fertilization
Which of the following terms is used to describe any substance, such as a drug, chemical, or virus, that can bring about a birth defect?
lower birth weight and short stature
What are some of the common consequences to a child whose mother smoked while pregnant?
Young infants cannot appreciate the carnival game in which a pea seems to disappear from under a walnut because they have not yet developed a sense of ________.
What term is used to describe a child's inability to see the world through anyone else's eyes except his or her own?
According to Piaget, the ability to understand that simply changing the appearance of an object does not change the object's nature is known as ________.
Which of Jean Piaget's stages of cognitive development is characterized by abstract thinking and the creation of theories?
Mothers who were unresponsive, insensitive, and coldly rejecting were associated with ________ attached infants.
________ babies in Ainsworth's study were clinging and unwilling to explore, very upset by the stranger regardless of the mother's presence, protested mightily when the mother left, were hard to soothe, and had mixed reactions upon mother's return.
Dr. Halk is studying a group of 25 youngsters from the time they are born until they reach school age. This is known as __________ research.
A developmental psychologist believes that increased TV watching by young children is responsible for a decline in reading scores when these children enter school. To explore her hypothesis, she records the TV watching habits of toddlers in a suburban community. She examines these habits again when the children enter kindergarten and once more when they complete first grade. This method is __________.
According to Piaget, which of the following is crucial to cognitive development at the sensory-motor stage?
The mother of a young child who didn't like to drink milk was trying to coax him to drink some. Taking the glass of milk, she poured it all into a small cup and said, "There! Now you won't have to drink so much." She would never have fooled the child if he had not been in the __________ stage.
Adjusting behavior or thoughts to fit new environmental demands is called __________.
Which of the following states has as a main theme the ability to consider many possible solutions to a problem and the ability to systematically test those possibilities?
the ability to do reversible thinking
What event marks the end of the Piagetian stage of sensorimotor development?
is in the preoperational stage.
Suppose that you show a small boy two bars of fresh fudge that are equal on all dimensions (exactly the same size, shape, and weight). You ask him if the two bars are the same, and he says "Yes." You then cut one of the bars into 10 chunks as he watches. You are surprised when he now asks if he can have the cut up fudge because it has more candy than the intact bar. This episode illustrates that the youngster:
Katherine is nice to Sally, even though she doesn't like Sally at all, because most of her friends like Sally. Katherine is in which stage of moral development according to Kohlberg?
The man was right according to his belief that his daughter had been unjustly wronged, and he was
correcting this wrong.
A man beat up two men who had raped his daughter. If you were asked, "Was the old man right to do this?" which answer would be HIGHEST according to Kohlberg's level of moral development?a. The man was right according to his belief that his daughter had been unjustly wronged, and he was
correcting this wrong. b. The man was wrong because he could be sent to jail for beating the boys. c. The man was wrong because his neighbors would think he should have gone to the police. d. The man was right because now he is a hero in the eyes of the community.
The drug most abused by pregnant women is __________.
A newborn baby is called a __________.
The ability to see the world in three dimensions is called ________
Which of the following is NOT a stage of development?
Researchers have discovered that during specific periods in one's life, certain abilities must develop or they will not develop later. These are known as __________.
During prenatal development, the organism depends on the __________ to exchange food and waste products with the mother's blood stream.
giving a spanking
Which of the following is NOT a negative reinforcer? a. turning off an electric shock b. giving a spanking c. removing a noxious odor
d. silencing a banging door