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Chapter 7 bold terms

Allocation

The division of limited time, energy, or materials among competing functions or requirements

Bet Hedging

Reducing the risk of mortality or reproductive failure in a variable environment by adopting an intermediate strategy or several alternative strategies simultaneously, or by spreading one's risk over time and space

Central place foraging

Foraging behavior in which acquired food is brought to a central place, such as a nest with young

Determinate Growth

a growth pattern in which an individual continues to grow only until it reaches maturity

Dormancy

A physiological inactive state,such diapause, hibernation, or seed dormancy when conditions do not allow the organism to function normally

Diapause

Temporary interruption of development or physiological function usually associated with a period of unfavorable environmental conditions

Fecundity

the number of offspring produced per reproductive episode

Hibernation

a state of winter dormancy involving lowered body temperature and metabolism

Indeterminate growth

a growth pattern in which an individual continues to grow, usually at a decreasing rate after maturity

Iteroparity

a life history characterized by multiple reproductive episodes

longevity

the life span of an individual

maturity

acquisition of reproductive function or the age at which this occur

optimal foraging

a theoretical concept that seeks to explain foraging behavior in terms of the fitness costs and benefits of each possible alternative behavior

parity

The number of episodes of reproduction in an individual's lifetime

photoperiod

the length of the daylight period in a 24 hour day

progammed death

death as part of a semelparous life history

proximate factors

an aspect of the environment that the organism uses as a cue for behavior, but which does not directly affect the organism fitness

semel-parity

a life history characterized by a single terminal reproductive episode

senescence

gradual deterioration of physiological function with age, leading to increased probability of death, aging

Trade-off

a consequence of devoting limited time, energy, or materials, to one structure, function, or behavior at the expense of another

Ultimate factors

an aspect of the environment that directly affects the fitness of an organism

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