A carbon atom can form up to _____ covalent bonds
L-dopa is used to treat _____.
What kind of effect does D-dopa have on Parkinson's disease?
Enantiomers are molecules that _____.
are mirror images
Geometric isomers are molecules that _____.
differ in the arrangement of their atoms about a double bond
Define the characteristics of the functional group alcohol.
is highly polar and may act as a weak acid
Define the characteristics of the functional group carboxylic acid.
acts as an acid
Define the characteristics of the functional group aldehyde.
may be a structural isomer of a ketone
Define the characteristics of the functional group thiol.
forms disulfide bonds
Define the characteristics of the functional group amine.
acts as a base
Define the characteristics of the functional group phosphate.
contributes a negative charge
Which chemical group is most likely to be responsible for an organic molecule behaving as a base?
How does carbon's electron configuration account for its ability to form large, complex, and diverse organic molecules?
valence of 4 electrons, strong tendency to form covalent bonds in order to fill valence, can bond to as many as 4 other carbon atoms, readily forms double bonds
How do carbon skeletons vary?
3 main classes: linear, branched, rings
How does the variations in carbon's skeleton contribute to the diversity and complexity of organic molecules?
structure relates directly to function, allowing many types of different bonds to occur
Describe the basic structure of a hydrocarbon.
C4H, double bond of 1 electron from H atom, and 1electron from valence of C
Why are hydrocarbon molecules hydrophobic?
majority of their bonds are non polar carbon-hydrogen linkages (petroleum, fats, asphalt)
Define the term structural isomer.
differ in the covalent arrangement of their atoms
Define the term geometric isomer.
have the same covalent arrangements but differ in their special arrangement
Define the term enantiomer isomer.
mirror images of each other