Any fluid having the same solute concentration as another fluid to which it is being compared.
1,000 calories of heat energy amount needed to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of water by 1°C at a standard pressure.
Standard unit of measure for food's caloric content.
Enzyme that transfers a phosphate group to (phosphorylates) a substrate.
A stepwise sequence of enzyme-mediated reactions by which cells construct, remodel, or break down organic molecules e.g., photosynthesis.
Diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane from a region where the water concentration is higher to a region where it is lower.
Amount of hydrostatic pressure that will prevent
osmosis from a hypotonic to a hypertonic fluid across a semipermeable membrane.
Reaction in which one molecule accepts electrons (it becomes reduced) from another molecule (which becomes oxidized).
Diffusion of a solute across a cell membrane, through the interior of a transport protein.
Transfer of a phosphate group to a recipient molecule.
Difference in pressure between two adjoining regions.
A molecule remaining at the end of a reaction.
reactant Molecule that enters a reaction.
second law of thermodynamics
Energy tends to disperse spontaneously.
Property of cell membranes some substances, but not others, can cross a cell membrane.
Cotransporter that actively moves sodium out of a cell and passively moves potassium into it.
A reactant molecule that is specifically acted upon by an enzyme.
The state in a chemical reaction when reactant bonds are at the breaking point.
Hydrostatic pressure. Pressure that a fluid exerts against a wall, membrane, or some other structure that contains it.