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genetics terms and the chromosomal basis of inheritance terms

chromosome theory of inheritance

a theory that states that genes have specific positions along chromosomes that undergo independent assortment

wild type

the dominant, most common phenotype

mutant phenotypes

the phenotype that is different from the wild type that us usually caused by a mutation

sex-linked gene

a gene located on a sex chromosome

y-linked gene

a gene located on the y chromosome

x-linkd genes

genes attatched to x chromosome, about 1100 of them

hemizygous

describes allele arrangement for males who only have one locus

Duchenne muscular dystrophy

a disease that causes weakening and loss of coordination. due to a gene that is x-linked

hemophilia

an x-linked recessive genetic disorder. stops blood from clotting

Barr body

the condensed body of inactive x chromosomes in females when only one half needs to be active

linked genes

genes near each other on a chromosome that are inherited together

parental types

offspring that match either of parent's phenotype

genetic recombination

offspring with different traits than their parents

recombinant types/recombinants

nonparental types with different phenotypes (shape, color)

crossing over

homologous pairs that exchange proteins between paternal and maternal chromatids

genetic map

a list of genetic locations of a chromosome. discovered by Morgan's student

linkage map

a diagram of recombination frequencies

map units

distance between genes

cytogenetic maps

a genetic map that locates genes relative to chromosomal features

nondisjunction

when the meiotic spindle doesn't equally distribute chromosomes to daughter cells

aneuploidy

when an abberant gamete (one affected by nondisjunction) joins a normal gamete, the daughter cells are aberrant too

monosomic

when a zygote is missing a single chromosome

trisomic

when a zygote has a single extra chromosome

polyploidy

when an organism has more than 2 chromosome sets (triploidy has 3 sets; tetraploidy has 4 sets)

deletion

a segment is erased

duplication

a sister chromatid gets another segment that is the same as one it already has. it usually comes from a deleted chromatid

inversion

rearranges a segment within a chromosome

translocation

two segments from two different nonhomologous pairs switch places

down syndrome

an aneuploid condition, where a person has an extra chromosome 21 bringing the total number of chromosomes to 47

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