also known as the black death/plague, a disease where the body is rotting from the inside out and the body turns black, the name came from a sign of bumps that were called buboes (Hey Mom, I got a "boo boo!"), killed half of the people in Europe during the 1300s.
a growing city in Italy, birthplace of the renaissance, overtook Rome in culture and importance.
Extremely wealthy merchant family in Italy that used their wealth to promote the arts, started Renaissance, proof of merchant power.
Life philosophy in the belief in mankind's potential to achieve great things (Change in Renaissance)
Life philosophy of the movement away from organized religion (deemphasis of the dominant religion) (Change in Renaissance)
the belief in the use of people's native language, no more writing in Latin, and more people became literate (French, German, etc), Latin is a dead language.
Renaissance artist known for Pieta (in-the-round sculpture), David, and the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel (perspective and fresco styles). Most of his subjects were biblical, showing evidence of devotion to the church.
Leonardo da Vinci
Renaissance artist known for Mona Lisa (oil painting- instead of yokes) and The Last Supper (fresco- painting in wet plaster, perspective- idea of creating a painting in 3 dimensions)
Renaissance author; wrote The Prince, which was really a job application that gave the prince advice on ruling, Became Prince's adviser
wrote The Divine Comedy and defined heaven, hell, and purgatory. First to write in vernacular.
(1564 - 1616) English poet and playwright considered one of the greatest writers of the English language; works include Julius Caesar, Macbeth, Romeo and Juliet, and Hamlet.
invented modern printing press in 1440. (Printing press was already around but he had only "heard" about it when he invented his own), Created the 42-line Gutenberg Bible.
What factors contributed to European urban revival just before and during the Renaissance?
End of invasions, Availability of safe and reliable transport, Rise of commerce and the warmer temperatures (due to the Medieval warming period 800-1300), Increased agricultural productivity and subsequent rising population, Greater availability of labor also contributed to urban growth
In what ways did the Renaissance change the way the Western world looked at life?
Humanism and Secularism both affect Western life philosophy even now. It also brought back humanist views.
What are some examples of cities that declined just after the European Medieval Period and what cities replaced those older cities?
Baghdad replaced Mecca/Medina (Constantinople), Moscow replaced Kiev, Beijing replaced Chang'an and Hangzhou, and Venice and Florence replaced Rome.
How did widespread commercial success lead to promotion of the arts in Europe?
The wealthy merchants didn't know what to do with their money, so they start to pend it on the arts! In addition to the merchants promoting arts due to their incredible wealth from trade, governments began to collect more taxes, which funded the visual and preforming arts.
Although Islamic scholars preserved Greek science and philosophical teachings, those concepts did not return to Europe until the Renaissance. Why?
Feudalism in the Medieval emphasized the fact that people were born into their place in society and stayed there; with the fall of feudalism, came back the Greek and Roman ideas of humanism, a life philosophy that emphasizes mankind's potential to achieve great things.
commercial, Russia City (Eastern Europe), Hanseatic League trade connected northern European traders with southern European traders
commercial, East African trading city, Indian Ocean trade to southern Africa (local/regional trade), ivory, gold, timber, yams, bananas
commercial, grand canal into Chang'an, East Asia China port city, Indian Ocean trade and silk roads, imported products, such as champa rice, from South East Asian societies. Also, it was used for sea trade to Melaka.
western India (south Asia), commercial, port city, Mediterranean, Chinese traders, Indian Ocean trade, important trade city in the Delhi Sultanate
now Iraq, commercial, silk road city with trade going through, governmental (capital of Abbasid Empire), because it was in Persia, it shows evidence of cultural synthesis/diversity.
commercial, important trade city on the Mediterranean that shows the rise of merchant power, between Western Europe and Middle East, Renaissance city (culture)
religious, the Kaaba is located here, a very religiously important location for Muslims going on their hajj; it's pretty much the most important city Islam-wise.
commercial, northern and western Europe trade passed through; governmental, capital of England
South America (Incan), commercial (all trade passed through), governmental (capital of Incan Empire), cultural can be argued...
silk road trade, commercial, central Asia; cultural, became a center of culture and learning along the Silk Roads
Spain, cultural, Abbasid tolerance (Jewish and Roman and Germanic culture lumped into one). After the fall of Rome, people lived in this Spanish kingdom with tolerance of other religions; Christians, Jews, and Muslims lived in peace, allowing for synthesis of culture.
commercial, Mediterranean links to Indian Ocean trade, very important trade city on the tip of the Arabian peninsula
the organization of the Western church (popes, cardinals, archbishops, bishops)- CORRUPTED (priests, monks, nuns)- UNCORRUPTED
a period in time when there were two popes, one in France, and one in the Vatican; people began losing hope and faith in the church due to this event
like John Wycliffe, also wrote bad things about the church, was burned at the stakes; this made people very angry.
Joan of Arc
(1412-1431) French peasant girl, a heroine and military leader inspired by religious visions; rallied French troops during the Hundred Years War to resist the English and to have Charles VII crowned king
The Muslim kingdom that Spain later conquested. In 1502, the Muslims were forced to convert to Christianity or be expelled or killed.
the group of Muslims from North Africa who conquered Spain in the eighth century, (Spanish Muslims)
a war initiated by Ferdinand and Isabella against all Muslims in Granada; it eventually turned into a persecution of all religious beliefs (called the Spanish Inquisition) and Spain became entirely Catholic.
Ferdinand and Isabella
During the late 15th century, they became King and Queen of a united Spain after centuries of Islamic domination (leaders of the Castile and Aragon kingdoms). Together, they made Spain a strong Christian nation and also provided funding to overseas exploration, notably Christopher Columbus., This was the king and queen of Spain who took over the Catholic Spain and started the Spanish Inquisition (Reconquista).
What was the impact of the Hundred Years' War upon France and England?
France was elevated in power, while England was made a little less powerful.
What religious change did Spain go through during the Reconquista and the Spanish Inquisition?
Spain became a devout Catholic country because they had driven every other religious belief out of Spain.
(1483-1546 CE) Leader of the Protestant Reformation, he at first was a Catholic priest at a college in Germany and tried to reform the church not separate. believed in justification by faith.
Justification by faith
all you need for salvation is belief in God, "Saved by faith alone", while reading the bible, Luther found this line. It basically said there was no need for a Pope or indulgences.
Martin Luther's ideas that he posted on the church door at Wittenburg which questioned the Roman Catholic Church. This act began the Reformation, Arguments written by Martin Luther against the Catholic church. They were posted on October 31, 1517.
A religious movement started by Martin Luther that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches.
(1521 CE) Martin Luther's heresy trials, he was found guilty but escaped after the trial and hid in the German Alps until 1522.
(1491-1547) REALLY FAT. brought Protestant into England to divorce his first wife. had 6 wives: Catherine of Aragon (divorce), Anne Boleyn (kill), Jane Seymour (die), Anne of Cleves (divorce), Catherine Howard (kill), and Katherine Parr (survive)
succeeded her sister Mary and is known as the greatest leader in British history (evidence of women empowerment). She led England into the modern era and changed England to Anglicanism.
a group of protestants who didn't like the Catholic part of the church of England so they leave England, go to Normandy, and leave on their voyage to the Americas and become known as the Pilgrims.
Martin Luther's movement led to the division of Christianity into what three main branches?
Catholic, Orthodox, and Protestant
The diffusion of what technology from East Asia into Western Europe helped the Reformation succeed where other efforts at reform failed?
the spread of printing technology (the printing press)
What evidence of justification by faith is found in Luther's 95 Theses?
The Bible does not say anything about indulgences.
Bartholomew Diaz (Bartolomeu Dias)
Portuguese explorer that wanted to find a faster water route to the East by sailing around Africa; however, he only made it to the cape of good hope.
Vasco de Gama
Portuguese explorer who sailed all the way around Africa and to India in an attempt to find a faster water route to the East.
Italian explorer that mapped and charted what he saw as the new world; America is named after him because he actually believed that he had found a new continent unlike Columbus who thought he found the Indies.
sailed all around the world to prove that the Earth was round; died in the process
Spanish conquistador who conquered the Aztecs due to the Aztecs having disease, local people rebelling against the Aztecs, the Aztecs believing that he was Quetzalcoatl, and European technology
Spanish conquistador that took over the Inca; Atahualpa was the Incan King at the time
Ponce de Leon
Spanish conquistador that discovered and conquered Florida; established St. Augustine as the oldest city in America
How did migrations of the Polynesian peoples have a significant environmental impact as they moved to new islands?
brought in religion, disease, new plants, and animals. Native plants species: taro, ti, kikui, noni, dona, sweet potatoes. Also developed new techniques for irrigation, such as fish ponds, and the new farming methods, such as terraced farming.
What are the three primary reasons for European exploration?
"the three G's" God- spread Christianity, Gold- money, wealth, valuable products, trade items, found lots of silver, Glory- power for their kingdom
Explain at least one positive effect of the intensification of the global circulation of goods just prior to the age of European exploration and one negative effect.
positive: everyone knows whats being invented and also, rise of the merchant class which leads to democracy
negative : disease spreads faster and natives taken over
What was the historical significance of Columbus' voyage?
permanent settlements in the Americas, and also began the Columbian Period of history. Columbus let people know about America.
How did sugar production in the Americas negatively impact history?
The production of sugar calls for much hard and laborious labor; therefore, the Europeans decided to enslave African people to do the work instead. This event begins slavery.
What was the single biggest factor that led to reduced numbers of American Indians following their initial contact with Europeans?
disease, such as small pox and chicken pox
Agriculture in Europe benefited from the introduction of what crops from the Americas?
potatoes, squash, tobacco, and corn. Possibly chocolate...
What is the historical significance of Magellan's voyage?
He proved that the Earth was round by completing the first circumnavigation of the globe.
The presence of the moors is an example of what pre-Reconquista characteristic of Spain?
The moors were Spanish Muslims that lived in the Spanish kingdom of Granada, showing that Spain was a mixture of religions and cultures that were tolerant of each other. Reconquista drove out the moors from Spain.
How did the Worms Trials work to the advantage of Martin Luther?
Through the Worms Trials, Martin Luther was able to publicize his views and let more people know about them. The Church couldn't kill him because then he would become a martyr.
The Puritanical movement of England had what ultimate goal?
The wanted to purify the English church to make it all Protestant.
What evidence exists in Columbus' letter to Ferdinand and Isabella that he is encouraging conquest and what might be his reasons for conquest?
Columbus described the vulnerability of the native people. He showed indications that he wants to take over the Americas for resources and in order to convert the American Indians.