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Test Cross

A cross between an individual with a dominant trait and a homozygous recessive individual. Shows genotype of dominant individual.

Monohybrid Cross

Cross between two heterozygous individuals, shows which allele is dominant. Ratio will be 3:1 if one is dominant

Dihybrid Cross

Cross between two individuals that are heterozygous for two different traits, shows dominant allele. Ratio will be 9:3:3:1 for dominant

Linkage Group

Genes on the same chromosome that don't sort independently

Epistasis

multiple gene products affect a trait

Pleiotropic

A gene that affects multiple traits

Translocation

When part of a chromosome breaks off and attaches to another

Nondisjunction

When either sister chromatids or homologs don't seperate

Aneuploidy

When there are too many or too few chromosomes

Autosomal Dominant Inheritance Pattern

(Achondroplasia) (Anirdia)

Autosomal Recessive Inheritance Pattern

(Albinism) (Hereditary Methemoglobinemia)

X linked Recessive Inheritance Pattern

(Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome) (Red-Green colorblindness)

X linked Dominant Inheritance Pattern

(Fragile X Syndrome) (Incontinentia pigmenti)

Changes in Chromosome Number

(Down Syndrome) (Turner Syndrome)

Changes in Chromosome Structure

(Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia) (Cri du chat Syndrome)

Transgenic

An organism that has genes from other species

Xenotransplantation

Transferring an organ from one species to another

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