Chapter 5- States of Consciousness

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Consciousness

A person's subjective experience of the world and the mind.

Cognitive neuroscience

A field that attempts to understand the links between cognitive processes and brain activity.

Nonconscious process

Any brain process that does not involve conscious processing, including both preconscious memories and unconscious processes.

Preconscious memories

Information that is not currently in consciousness but can be recalled to consciousness voluntarily or after something calls attention to them

Unconscious

According to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. According to contemporary psychologists, information processing of which we are unaware.

Daydreaming

A common (and quite normal) variation of consciousness in which attention shifts to memories, expectations, desires, or fantasies and away from the immediate situation.

Circadian rhythms

The 24-hour biological cycles found in humans and many other species.

REM sleep

Rapid eye movement sleep, a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur. Also known as paradoxical sleep, because the muscles are relaxed (except for minor twitches) but other body systems are active.

Non-REM sleep

Sleep stages 1 through 4, which are marked by an absence of rapid eye movements, relatively little dreaming, and varied EEG activity.

Sleep paralysis

The experience of waking up unable to move

REM rebound

the tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation

Sleep debt

A sleep deficiency caused by not getting the amount of sleep that one requires for optimal functioning

Manifest content

According to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream (as distinct from its latent, or hidden, content).

Latent content

According to Freud, the underlying meaning of a dream

Activation-synthesis theory

Suggests that the brain engages in a lot of random neural activity. Dreams make sense of this activity.

Insomnia

Difficulty in falling asleep or staying asleep

Sleep apnea

A sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings.

Night Terrors

A sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified; unlike nightmares, night terrors occur during Stage 4 sleep, within two or three hours of falling asleep, and are seldom remembered

Narcolepsy

A sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times.

Gataplexy

genetic basis for sleep apnea

Hypnosis

A social interaction in which one person suggests to another that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur

Meditation

A family of mental exercises in which a conscious attempt is made to focus attention in a nonanalytical way.

Psychoactive drugs

Chemicals that affect the nervous system and result in altered consciousness

Hallucinogens

A diverse group of drugs that have powerful effects on mental and emotional functioning, marked most prominently by distortions in sensory and perceptual experience.

Opiates

A category of psychoactive drugs that are chemically similar to morphine and have strong pain-relieving properties.

Depressants

Drugs (such as alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates) that reduce neural activity and slow body functions.

Stimulant

Drugs (such as caffeine, nicotine, and the more powerful amphetamines, cocaine, and Ecstasy) that excite neural activity and speed up body functions.

Tolerance

A progressive decrease in a person's responsiveness to a drug.

Physical dependence

A physiological need for a drug, marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued

Addiction

Compulsive drug craving and use, despite adverse consequences.

Withdrawal

A pattern of uncomfortable or painful physical symptoms and cravings experienced by the user when the level of drug is decreased or the drug is eliminated.

Psychological dependence

A psychological need to use a drug, such as to relieve negative emotions

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