men and women who agitated for a complete end to slavery, ended the transatlantic slave trade in 1808 and slavery in 1834.
revolutionaries who wanted to abolish all private property and governments, usually by violence, a replace them with free associations of groups.
(1884-1885) conference that Otto von Bismark called to set rules for the partition of Africa and led to the creation of the Congo Free State under King Leopold II of Belgium.
British Raj (Rule)
the rule over much of South Asia between 1765 and 1947 by the East India Company and then by a British government.
policy by which a nation administers a foreign territory and develops its resources for the benfit of the colonial power.
Contract of Indenture
a voluntary agreement binding a person to work for a specified period of years in return for free passage to an overseas destination, before 1800s mostly Europeans, after Asians.
(1853-1856) conflict between the Russian and Ottoman Empires fought primarily in the Crimean Peninsula. To prevent Russian expansion, Britain and France sent troops to support the Ottomans.
Declaration of the Rights of Man
(1789) statement of fundamental political rights adopted by the French National Assembly at the beginning of the French Revolution.
in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, the economic process that led to industrialization, urbanization, the rise of a large and prosperous middle class, and heavy investment in education.
(1835-1908) Empress of China and mother of Emperor Guangxi, put her son under house arrest, supported antiforeign movements, and resisted reforms of the Chinese government and armed forces.
a philosophical movement in eighteenth-century Europe that fostered the belief that one could reform society by discovering rational laws that governed social behavior and that were just as scientific as the laws of physics.
France's traditional national assembly with representatives of the three estates in French society.
(1769-1821) overthrew French Directory in 1799 and became emperor of the French in 1804.
Gens de Couleur
free men and women of color in Haiti that sought greater political power and later supported the Haitian Revolution.
Haitian revolutionary leader, emancipated the island's slaves in 1791, he was appointed governor general in 1797 by the revolutionary government of France. In 1802, Napoleon, wishing to restore slavery, took over the island and he died in prison in France.
the transformation of the economy, the environment, and living conditions, occurring first in England in the eighteenth century, that resulted from the use of steam engines, the machanization of manufacturing in factories, and innovations in transportation and communication.
a machine that turns the energy released by burning fuel into motion, later applied to moving machinery in factories and to powering ships and locomotives.
the idea that government should refrain from interfering in economic affairs, Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations.
European government policies of the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries designed to promote overseas trade between a country and its colonies and accumulate precious metals by requiring colonies to trade only with their motherland country.
Venezuelan patriot and statesman who drove the Spanish from Venezuela, Peru, Colombia and Ecuador.
(1768-1813) Shawnee leader who attempted to organize an Amerindian confederacy to prevent the loss of additional territory to American settlers, became an ally of the British in the War of 1812 and died in battle.
Women's Rights Convention
(1848) gathering of women angered by their exclusion from an international antislavery meeting at Seneca Falls, New York, to discuss their rights.
condition experienced by economies that depended on colonial forms of production such as the export of raw materials and plantation crops with low wages and low investment in education.
the process of reforming political, military, economic, social, and cultural traditions in imitation of the early success of Western societies, often with regard for accommodating local traditions in non-Western societies.
a Muslim prince allied to British India, technically a semi-autonomous deputy of the Mughal emperor.
soldier in South Asia, especially in the service of the British.
the revolt ofIndian soldiers in 1857 against certain practices that violated religious customs, also known as the Sepoy Mutiny.
Indian National Congress
a movementa dn political party founded in 1885 to demand greater Indian participation in government, its membership was middle class, and its demands were modest until World War I. Led after 1920 by Mohandas Gandhi, it appealed increasingly to the poor and it organized mass protests demanding self-government and independence.
(1769-1849) leader of Egyptian modernization in the early nineteenth century, he ruled Egypt as an Ottoman governor but had imperial ambitions.
reforms made in the ottoman Empire in the nineteenth-century intended to move civil law away from the control of religious elites and make the military and the bureaucracy more efficient.
movement of young intellectualsto institute liberal reforms and build a feeling of national identity in the Ottoman Empire in the second half of the nineteenth century.
(1839-1842) war between Britain and the Qing Empire that was, in the Britich view, occasioned by the Qing government's refusal to permit the importation of opium into its territories, and the victorious British imposed the one-sided Treaty of Nanking on China.
Treaty of Nanking
(1842) treaty that concluded the Opium War, awarding Britain a large indemnity from the Qing Empire, denied the Qing government tariff control over some of its own borders, opened additional ports of residence to Britons, and ceded the island of Hong Kong to Britain.
the most destructive civil war before the twentieth century, Christian-inspired rural rebellion that threatened to topple the Qing Empire.
submarine telegraph cables
insulated copper cables laid along the bottom of a sea or ocean for telegraphic communication.
form of iron that is both durable and flexible.
reign of Queen Victoria of Great Britain from 1837-1901, term used to describe late-nineteenth-century society, with its rigid moral standards and sharply differentiated roles for men and women and for middle-class and working-class people.
nineteenth-century idea in Western societies that men and women, especially of the middle class, should have clearly differentiated roles in society: women as wives, mothers, and homemakers and men as breadwinners and participants in business and politics.
political ideology that originated in Europe in the 1830s. Socialists advocated government protection of workers from exploitation by property owners and government ownership of industries.
an organization of workers in a particular industry or trade, created to defend the interests of members through strikes or negotiations with employers.
(1818-1883) German journalist and philosopher, founder of the Marxist branch of socialism.
a political ideology that emphasizes the civil rights of citizens, representative government, and the protection of private property, derived from the Enlightenment and especially popular among the property-owning middle classes of Europe and North American.
Otto von Bismark
(1815-1898) chancellor of Prussia from 1862 until 1871, when he became chancellor of Germany, he led Prussia to victory against Austria and France and was responsible for the creation of the German Empire. Held the Berlin Conference.
th political program that followed the destruction of the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868, in which a collection of young leaders set Japan on the path of industrialization, imperialism, and centralization.
ship canal dug across the isthmus of Suez in Egypt, designed by Ferdinand de Lesseps.
Scramble for Africa
sudden wave of conquests in Africa by European powers in the 1880s and 1890s, Britain obtained most of eastern Africa, France most of northwestern Africa, while other countries obtained lesser amounts.
King Leopold II
(1835-1909) King of Belgium who was active in encouraging the exploration of Central Africa and became the ruler of the Congo Free State.
(1844-1911) Emperor of Ethiopia who enlarged Ethiopia to its present dimensions and defeated an Italian invasion at Adowa.
economic dominance of a weaker country by a more powerful one, while maintaining the legal independence of the weaker state, characterized the relations between the Latin American republics during the nineteenth century and Great Britain and the United States.