Name the four types of carbon chains.
Name the four main types of organic matter.
carbon has ____ valence electrons
These determine the functions and properties of a certain molecule. they are groups of atoms that act together usually found at the end of a hydrocarbon chain. They are responsible for chemical reactions, because chemical reactions take place at the ends of molecules.
name the 5 functional groups
alcohols and sugars
What are the classes of the functional group hydroxyl?
What is the class of the functional group carboxyl?
What is the class of the functional group amino?
What is the class of the functional group phosphate?
Aldehydes and Keytones
What are the classes of the functional group carbonyl?
What are really big molecules?
Macromolecules are molecules that weigh more than ___________________________.
Macromolecules are constructed of smaller molecules called ________________, which are subdivided into their basic units called ____________.
This is the process in which monomers are joined to form polymers. Give both names.
This is the anabolic process by which two molecules are chemically bonded through the use of enzymes and the loss of water.
This is the process in which polymers are separated to form monomers.
This is the catabolic process by which the bond between monomers are broken by an enzyme and the addition of water.
1:2:1; this is the ratio of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in what monomers?
Name the three types of monosaccarides.
Glucose is the sugar found in ______________.
Fructose is the sugar found in _______________.
Galactose is the sugar found in _______________.
All monosaccarides have the formula of ____________ (don't worry about the subscripts).
These are compounds that have the same structural formulas but different arrangements of atoms.
Glucose, fructose, and galactose are different types of monomers called _____________ in the macromolecules __________________________.
These are the functions of ____________:
- source of short term energy
- building blocks of polymers
- build structural material like cellulose
- tags that can help you identify a cell
These are the polymers of carbohydrates.
Name the 4 types of polysaccharides.
Cellulose is a _____________________ which is the polymer of ________________________.
This is the polymer to which chitin belongs.
Starches indirectly belong to the macromolecules _______________.
This is a type of polysaccharide that is very sturdy and makes up the cell walls of plants.
This is a type of polysaccharide that is a storage form of sugar in plants.
This is a type of polysaccharide that is the storage form of glucose in animals.
This is a type of polysaccharide that is found in crawfish, crab, lobster, and even in spiders and other insects.
These polysaccharides have three cells of chains, each chain connected by a hydrogen bond.
These polysaccharides have a single chain.
These polysaccharides have a branched chain.
We eat this and our body breaks it down for energy.
This keeps the colon clean.
This is stored in the liver and muscles, and if you store too many, you gain weight.
What are the functional groups found in carbohydrates?
One could recognize this by one ring.
This could be recognized by the 1:2:1 ratio
Name the three types of disaccharides.
This is a disaccharide, a sugar found in beer and wine from fermenting. It is made of glucose and glucose.
This is a disaccharide found in table sugar. It is made of glucose and fructose.
This is a disaccharide found in milk. It is made of glucose and galactose.
This is made of glucose and glucose.
This is made of glucose and fructose.
This is made of glucose and galactose
What is the chemical formula for disaccharides (don't worry about subscripts)?
You can recognize this by two rings. Or, you can count the Cs, Hs, and Os.