Organic Chemistry Part One: The Beginning Notes and Carbohydrates

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branched chains
straight chains
double bonds
rings

Name the four types of carbon chains.

carbohydrates
lipids
proteins
nucleic acids

Name the four main types of organic matter.

four

carbon has ____ valence electrons

functional groups

These determine the functions and properties of a certain molecule. they are groups of atoms that act together usually found at the end of a hydrocarbon chain. They are responsible for chemical reactions, because chemical reactions take place at the ends of molecules.

hydroxyl
carboxyl
carbonyl
amino
phosphate

name the 5 functional groups

alcohols and sugars

What are the classes of the functional group hydroxyl?

carboxylic acids

What is the class of the functional group carboxyl?

amines

What is the class of the functional group amino?

organic phosphates

What is the class of the functional group phosphate?

Aldehydes and Keytones

What are the classes of the functional group carbonyl?

macromolecules

What are really big molecules?

100,000 daltons

Macromolecules are molecules that weigh more than ___________________________.

polymers
monomers

Macromolecules are constructed of smaller molecules called ________________, which are subdivided into their basic units called ____________.

dehydration synthesis
condensation

This is the process in which monomers are joined to form polymers. Give both names.

dehydration synthesis

This is the anabolic process by which two molecules are chemically bonded through the use of enzymes and the loss of water.

hydrolysis

This is the process in which polymers are separated to form monomers.

hydrolysis

This is the catabolic process by which the bond between monomers are broken by an enzyme and the addition of water.

monosaccharides

1:2:1; this is the ratio of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in what monomers?

glucose
fructose
galactose

Name the three types of monosaccarides.

plants

Glucose is the sugar found in ______________.

fruits

Fructose is the sugar found in _______________.

milk

Galactose is the sugar found in _______________.

C6H12O6

All monosaccarides have the formula of ____________ (don't worry about the subscripts).

structural isomers

These are compounds that have the same structural formulas but different arrangements of atoms.

monosaccarides
carbohydrates

Glucose, fructose, and galactose are different types of monomers called _____________ in the macromolecules __________________________.

carbohydrates

These are the functions of ____________:
- source of short term energy
- building blocks of polymers
- build structural material like cellulose
- tags that can help you identify a cell

polysaccharides

These are the polymers of carbohydrates.

cellulose
starch
glycogen
chitin

Name the 4 types of polysaccharides.

polysaccharide
carbohydrates

Cellulose is a _____________________ which is the polymer of ________________________.

polysacchaide

This is the polymer to which chitin belongs.

carbohydrates

Starches indirectly belong to the macromolecules _______________.

cellulose

This is a type of polysaccharide that is very sturdy and makes up the cell walls of plants.

starch

This is a type of polysaccharide that is a storage form of sugar in plants.

glycogen

This is a type of polysaccharide that is the storage form of glucose in animals.

chitin

This is a type of polysaccharide that is found in crawfish, crab, lobster, and even in spiders and other insects.

cellulose

These polysaccharides have three cells of chains, each chain connected by a hydrogen bond.

starch

These polysaccharides have a single chain.

glycogen

These polysaccharides have a branched chain.

starch

We eat this and our body breaks it down for energy.

cellulose

This keeps the colon clean.

glycogen

This is stored in the liver and muscles, and if you store too many, you gain weight.

hydroxyl
carbonyl

What are the functional groups found in carbohydrates?

monosaccharide

One could recognize this by one ring.

monosaccharides

This could be recognized by the 1:2:1 ratio

maltose
sucrose
galactose

Name the three types of disaccharides.

maltose

This is a disaccharide, a sugar found in beer and wine from fermenting. It is made of glucose and glucose.

sucrose

This is a disaccharide found in table sugar. It is made of glucose and fructose.

lactose

This is a disaccharide found in milk. It is made of glucose and galactose.

maltose

This is made of glucose and glucose.

sucrose

This is made of glucose and fructose.

lactose

This is made of glucose and galactose

C12H22O11

What is the chemical formula for disaccharides (don't worry about subscripts)?

disaccharide

You can recognize this by two rings. Or, you can count the Cs, Hs, and Os.

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