founder of chiropractic; founder of osteopathy
Palmer's Theory (a)
Inflammation was the essential feature of disease and was caused by displaced anatomic parts: arteries, veins, nerves, muscles, ligaments, bones, and joints
Palmer's Theory evolved (b)
focused on nerve irritation due to subluxation of spinal joints as the source of illness
Palmer's Theory developed further (c)
included nerve stretching and slackenings as the critical factor; denied nerves were pinched in the IVF; insisted that a subluxated joint could alter the tension in nerves and thereby modify their effective message to end organs
developer of chiropractic; 1906 founded a protective society that provided legal services for DC's charged with practicing medicine without a license; strongly promoted the emerging "chiropractic philosophy"
BJ Palmer: Chiropractic Philosophy
BJ Palmer Theory
find and correct subluxations to free obstructed nerves and allow Innate Intelligence to direct healing messages from the brain through the nerves to the end organs
1st Chiro School to open
Parker School of Chiropractic (1905)
Early Chiropractic Pioneers
Willard Carver, John Howard, Tullius Ratledge, Sylva Ashworth
ACC Position on Chiropractic
Chiropractic is a health care discipline that emphasizes the inherent recuperative power of the body to heal itself without the use of drugs or surgery. The practice of chiropractic focuses on the relationship between structure (spine) and function (nervous system) and how that relationship affects the preservation and restoration of health.
an incomplete luxation or dislocation; though a relationship is altered, contact between joint surfaces remains.
interconnectedness of all aspects of the body's functions; reciprocal relationship between structure and function; supremacy of the nervous system; focus on patient rather than disease; the patient is ultimately responsible for states of health or illness
rejection of drugs and surgery as part of the chiropractic art; maximize patient benefit through more conservative/less invasive method; seeks to assist natural healing capabilities
CNS controls all parts of the body; mental impulses were said to communicate information from Innate Intelligence and the brain to all tissues of the body
The effects of manipulation
influences any organ and impacts any disorder
Three Major Orientations
Traditional, Biopsychosocial, ACC Paradigm
Traditional Orientation (1)
The body is a self-regulating and self-healing organism;
Traditional Orientation (2)
the nervous system is the master system that regulates and controls all other organs and tissues and relates the individual to his or her environment;
Traditional Orientation (3)
spinal biomechanical dysfunction in the form of vertebral subluxation complex may adversely affect the nervous system's ability to regulate function
Traditional Orientation (4)
The central focus of the doctor of chiropractic is to optimize patient health by correcting, managing, or minimizing vertebral subluxations through chiropractic spinal adjustment.
Health is the natural state of the individual. Disease represents the body's failure to adapt to the internal and external environment; the innate tendency is to restore homeostasis; health involves enabling the body to fulfill it's biologic, human, and social potentials. The chiropractor is simply the facilitator.
Five-Component Model of Subluxation (1)
Neuropathophysiologic Component: biomechanical insult to nerve tissue (neural dysfunction, compression, decreased axoplasmic transport mechanisms)
Five-Component Model of Subluxation (2)
Kinesiopathologic Component: hypomobility, lack of appropriate joint motion, early manifestation of chronically fixated joint is shortening of ligaments as an adaptation to limited range of motion
Five-Component Model of Subluxation (3)
Myopathologic Component: spasm or hypertonicity of muscles as a result of compensation, facilitation
Five-Component Model of Subluxation (4)
Histopathologic Component: Inflammation can result from trauma, hypermobile irritation, or occur as part of the repair process; includes osseous tissue changes in the joint that may be expressed according to the clinical principles of Weigert's law and Wolff's law.
Five-Component Model of Subluxation (5)
Biochemical Component: due to trauma or fixation of the spinal joints; hormonal or chemical effects or imbalances produce histamine, prostoglandin, and bradykinin.
manual procedure involving directed thrust that moves joint beyond its physciological ROM w/o exceeding its anatomical limits; high velocity, low-amplitude thrust; controlled position, leverage, direction, amplitude, and velocity
Purpose of Manipulation
to improve mobility in areas of the body that are restricted
Effects of Manipulation
relief of pain and discomfort, improved posture and locomotion, improved function elsewhere in the body, enhanced sense of well-being.
Mechanical Effects of Manipulation
joint cavitation, increased PROM & AROM, release of articular adhesions, lubricate joints, local and distant effects
23 DC schools opened
WW1 and WW2
Biggest surge in DC enrollment
Council on DC education was recognized by the US office of Education
organized the American Chiropractic in 1905, published first textbook on DC 1906
Introduced the first bill to legalize DC in 1907 (Oklahoma)
Founder of the National School of DC in 1908
Sold school to Carl Cleveland in 1951
Served on the first DC board in Nebraska
Intro of the neurocalometer
National DC Association (UCA+ ACA)
International DC association
Committee on Quackery
Council on DC education- the only educational accrediting agency for DC colleges
DC coverage by Medicare and other ins plans
Wilk Antitrust Suit
Association of DC colleges consensus statements sought to clarify professional common ground and define DC's role within health care
19th Century surgeon stated that the nerve supplying a joint also supplies the muscles which move the joint and the skin covering the articular insertion of those muscles.
Weigert's Law (overproduction theory)
loss or destruction of a part or element is likely to result in compensatory replacement and overproduction of tissue during the process of regeneration, repair, or both.
every change in the form and function of a bone, or in it's function alone, is followed by certain definite changes in ti's internal architecture and secondary alterations in it's external conformation
Dizziness, Drop attacks, Diplopia, Dysarthria, Dysphagia
Nausea, numbness, nystagmus