3 points of Leverage for Managers for Maximizing Productivity
1. who you select (recruiting-selection)
2. how well you impart job knowledge (training performance feedback)
3. how well you incent people to do what you want them to do.
Training (common misconception)
"an act of faith" = it always works
planned programs designed to improve performance, on the current job at the individual, group and organization level. implies measurable changes in KSA's and or social behavior
learning opportunities designed to help employees grow. peparation for future jobs.
Development (skill specification)
nonspecific towards a specific skill
time and money budgeted for training will increase
Organizational Training Responsibility
provide atmosphere that will support/encourage change
Individual Training Responsibility
derive maximum benefit from learning opportunities provided
more cost effective than firing
Why So Much Time & $ Spent on Training?
too many unskilled/uneducated youth for entry level jobs, more sophisticated technical systems, need to train underutilized groups-racial and ethnic
Training should be:
part of corporate culture, tied to business strategy, comprehensive
how well a person can aquire the skills, knowledge and behavior necessary to perform a job. ability x motivation
percent of payroll designated to training and development expense
Learning Management System (LMS)
computer application that automates the administration, development and delivery of training programs
Benefits to LMS
increase availability and decease costs of training
the process of evaluating the organization, individual employees and employees' tasks to determine what kinds of training are necessary
where is training needed?
What Does Person Analysis Answer?
do performance deficiencies result from lack of knowledge, skills or ability? who needs training? Are these employees willing and able to learn?
Task (Job) Analysis
what should be taught?
Current Skill Levels of US Workforce
lacking basic skills
limits on trainings effectiveness that arise from the situation or conditions within the organization
responsibility of HR professional, program of sending employees to outside training programs
good for presenting info on a specific topic to many trainees (fast and cheap). trainer lecturing group.
doesn't require trainees to attend a class. consistent presentation, not affected by an individual trainer's goals and kills. Sometimes tries to present too much info.
Computer Based Training
participants receive course materials and instruction distributed over the internet or on a CD-Rom (cheap, easy to customize, deliverable in small doses)
receiving training via the internet (Electronic Performance Support Systems)
person with job experience and skill guides trainees in practicing job skills at the workplace. apprenticeship and internships
represent a real-life situation. expensive, need constant updating. worth it if risks of mistake on the job are great.
participants observe other people demonstrating the desired behavior, then have the opportunity to practice it themselves
trains team how to share info and decisions to obtain the best team performance
2. high transfer
3. physically carrying out desired behaviors
5. measurable performance standards
Transfer of Training
on the job use of knowledge, skills and behaviors learned in training. requires employees to actually learn the content of the training program.
Orientation of New Employees
prepares employees to perform their jobs effectively, learn about their organization and establish work relationships
Diversity Training (purpose)
designed to change employee attitudes about diversity and develop skills needed to work with a diverse workforce
Benefits of Diversity Training
allows all employees to contribute to org. goals and experience personal growth
3 Areas New Employee Orientation Must Address
1. company standards, norms, traditions
2. social behavior, work climate
3. technical aspects of job
Affitmative Action Training Plans
specify training goals for minorities and women
initial preparation of individuals to enter workforce
Skills Improvement Training
training employed workers to upgrade skills
preparing for new careers for those displaced from jobs
help become self sufficient, job skills training, social services
3 Phases of Training
1. Needs Assessment
2. Development of Program
Consequences of Poor Transfer of Training
cost of useless training and cost of hampered performance
goal setting, behavior modeling, practice, feedback. increases training effectiveness
goal setting, meaningfulness of material, practice, feedback.increases training effectiveness
Evaluating Training Programs: Internal Criteria
measure outcomes of training program (reaction of participants, to what extent did trainees learn?)
Evaluating Training Programs: External Criteria
measure impact of training on job environment. behavior (what on the job changes have occurred?), results (what cost-related outcomes have resulted from training?)
combination of OJT and classroom training. get paid while learning and hands on experience.