chapters 7,8,and,9

59 terms by kuren 

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social stratification

society ranking categories of people in a hierarchy.

what share of the U.S. population is officially counted by the government as poor?

12.3 percent

deviance

the recognized violation of cultural norms

class systems

the belief that social inequality is fair because social position reflects personal talent and effort of ideology

the actual amount of crime in the United States is

three times greater then official reports indicate

primary deviance

a passing episode of deviance that has little effect on the person's self-concept
-Edwin Lemert

corporate crime

the illegal actions of corporation or people acting on its behalf

lower-upper class

once poor, later earned a fortune with there hard work

community-base corrections

operate within society as a whole rather than behind prison walls

crimes against persons

violent crimes that direct violence or the threat of violence against others

reason why Karl Marx revolution did not take place

-stock places ownership of companies in the hands of tens of millions of people
-living standards have risen
-the law afford workers far greater legal protection

what share of the richest people in the United States gained their fortunes mostly from inheritance?

about one-third

intergenerational social mobility

the upward or downward social mobility of children in relation to their parents

how many people in the United States are homeless for some time during a given year?

3 million

Emile Durkheim's basic insight about deviance

normal element of social organization

gender

the personal traits and social position that members of a society attach to being female or male

accounts for global poverty

technology
population growth
social stratification

innovation

a person who gets by committing fraud while working at a bank

biological approaches offer

very limited understanding of crime

what share of married U.S. couples depend on two incomes?

more than half

patriarchy

social organization in which males dominate females

in poor countries, the disadvantages women face relative to men are

greater than in rich nations

middle class

40 to 45 percent of the U.S.population falls within the largest social class

crime

the violation of a society's formally enacted criminal law

social control

attempts by society to regulate people's thoughts and behavior

criminal justice system

the organizations police, courts, and prison officials-trial respond to alleged violations of the law

labeling theory

the idea that deviance and conformity result not so to see deviance in every day situations

primary deviance

norm violations may provoke some reaction from others, but this process has little effect on a person's self-concept

secondary deviance

the individual may begin to change in a different way, rejecting the people who are critical, and repeatedly breaking the rules

stigma

a powerfully negative label that greatly changes a person's self-concept and social identity

retrospective labeling

a reinterpretation of the person's past in light of some present deviance

medicalization of deviance

the transformation of moral and legal deviance in to medical condition

white-collar crime

defined by Edwin Souther land
crime committed by people of high social position in the course of their occupations

organized crime

a business supplying illegal goods or services

hate crimes

a criminal act against a person or a person's property by an offender motivated by racial or other bias

crimes against property

crimes that involve theft of money or property to others

victim-less crimes

violations of law in which there are no obvious victims

the street criminal, profile they look into

-age
-gender
-social class
-race and ethnicity

the U.S. criminal justice system

due process
police
courts
punishment

plea bargaining

a legal negotiation in which a prosecutor reduces a change in exchange for a defendant's guilty plea

retribution

an act of moral vengeance by which society makes the offender suffer as much as the suffering caused by the crime

deterrence

the attempt to discourage criminality though the use of punishment

rehabilitation

a program for reforming the offender to prevent later offenses

societal protection

rendering an offender incapable of further offenses temporarily through imprisonment or permanently by execution

criminal recidivism

later offenses by people previously convicted of crimes

community-based corrections

correctional programs operating within society at large rather than behind prison walls

probation

a policy of permitting a convicted offender to remain in the community under conditions imposed by a court, including regular supervision

gender stratification

unequal distribution of wealth, power, and privilege between men and women

kibbutz

an important setting for gender research because gender equality is one of its stated goals

matriarchy

domination by women

sexism

the belief that one sex is innately superior to the other

global stratification

patterns of social inequality in the world as a whole

high-income countries

the nations with the highest overall standards of living
(64 people)

middle-income countries

nations with standard of living about average for the world as a whole (73 people)

low-income countries

nations with standard of living in which most people are poor (57 people)

colonialism

the process by which some nations enrich themselves through political economic control of other nations

neocolonialism

a new form of global power relationships that involve not direct political control but economic exploitation by multinational

multinational corporation

a large business that operates in many countries

modernization theory

a model of economic and social development that explains global inequality in terms of technological and cultural differences between nations

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