society ranking categories of people in a hierarchy.
what share of the U.S. population is officially counted by the government as poor?
the recognized violation of cultural norms
the belief that social inequality is fair because social position reflects personal talent and effort of ideology
the actual amount of crime in the United States is
three times greater then official reports indicate
a passing episode of deviance that has little effect on the person's self-concept
the illegal actions of corporation or people acting on its behalf
once poor, later earned a fortune with there hard work
operate within society as a whole rather than behind prison walls
crimes against persons
violent crimes that direct violence or the threat of violence against others
reason why Karl Marx revolution did not take place
-stock places ownership of companies in the hands of tens of millions of people
-living standards have risen
-the law afford workers far greater legal protection
what share of the richest people in the United States gained their fortunes mostly from inheritance?
intergenerational social mobility
the upward or downward social mobility of children in relation to their parents
how many people in the United States are homeless for some time during a given year?
Emile Durkheim's basic insight about deviance
normal element of social organization
the personal traits and social position that members of a society attach to being female or male
accounts for global poverty
a person who gets by committing fraud while working at a bank
biological approaches offer
very limited understanding of crime
what share of married U.S. couples depend on two incomes?
more than half
social organization in which males dominate females
in poor countries, the disadvantages women face relative to men are
greater than in rich nations
40 to 45 percent of the U.S.population falls within the largest social class
the violation of a society's formally enacted criminal law
attempts by society to regulate people's thoughts and behavior
criminal justice system
the organizations police, courts, and prison officials-trial respond to alleged violations of the law
the idea that deviance and conformity result not so to see deviance in every day situations
norm violations may provoke some reaction from others, but this process has little effect on a person's self-concept
the individual may begin to change in a different way, rejecting the people who are critical, and repeatedly breaking the rules
a powerfully negative label that greatly changes a person's self-concept and social identity
a reinterpretation of the person's past in light of some present deviance
medicalization of deviance
the transformation of moral and legal deviance in to medical condition
defined by Edwin Souther land
crime committed by people of high social position in the course of their occupations
a business supplying illegal goods or services
a criminal act against a person or a person's property by an offender motivated by racial or other bias
crimes against property
crimes that involve theft of money or property to others
violations of law in which there are no obvious victims
the street criminal, profile they look into
-race and ethnicity
the U.S. criminal justice system
a legal negotiation in which a prosecutor reduces a change in exchange for a defendant's guilty plea
an act of moral vengeance by which society makes the offender suffer as much as the suffering caused by the crime
the attempt to discourage criminality though the use of punishment
a program for reforming the offender to prevent later offenses
rendering an offender incapable of further offenses temporarily through imprisonment or permanently by execution
later offenses by people previously convicted of crimes
correctional programs operating within society at large rather than behind prison walls
a policy of permitting a convicted offender to remain in the community under conditions imposed by a court, including regular supervision
unequal distribution of wealth, power, and privilege between men and women
an important setting for gender research because gender equality is one of its stated goals
domination by women
the belief that one sex is innately superior to the other
patterns of social inequality in the world as a whole
the nations with the highest overall standards of living
nations with standard of living about average for the world as a whole (73 people)
nations with standard of living in which most people are poor (57 people)
the process by which some nations enrich themselves through political economic control of other nations
a new form of global power relationships that involve not direct political control but economic exploitation by multinational
a large business that operates in many countries
a model of economic and social development that explains global inequality in terms of technological and cultural differences between nations
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