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Charter

a written grant of rights and privileges by a ruler or government to a community, class of people, or organization

John Smith

Helped found and govern Jamestown. His leadership and strict discipline helped the Virginia colony get through the difficult first winter.

Representative government

political system in which voters elect representatives to make laws for them

Pilgrim

Someone who travels to a shrine or sacred place, as an act of religious devotion

Squanto

Native American who helped the English colonists in Massachusetts develop agricultural techniques and served as an interpreter between the colonists and the Wampanoag.

establish

to set up or create

sustain

v. to support, nourish, keep up; to suffer, undergo; to withstand

John Winthrop

1588-1649 First governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1630.

toleration

The acceptance of different beliefs

Roger Williams

He founded Rhode Island for separation of Church and State. He believed that the Puritans were too powerful and was ordered to leave the Massachusetts Bay Colony for his religious beliefs.

Anne Hutchinson

American colonist (born in England) who was banished from Boston for her religious views (1591-1643)

Thomas Hooker

A Puritan minister who led about 100 settlers out of Massachusetts Bay to Connecticut because he believed that the governor and other officials had too much power. He wanted to set up a colony in Connecticut with strict limits on government.

John Wheelwright

Brother in law of Anne Hutchinson, also banished from Massachusetts supporting her, founded Exeter,NH in 1637

Town meeting

a meeting of the inhabitants of a town

Metacom

Chief of the Wampanoag Indians who led an attack on villages throughout New England. This was the largest conflict in 1675.

restrict

place limits on (extent or access)

propriety colony

land given by the king to one or more people that are called propieters. they can divide or rent the land . they can make laws to go along with the land.

Royal colony

A colony under the direct control of a monarch

William Penn

Penn, an English Quaker, founded Pennsylvania in 1682, after receiving a charter from King Charles II the year before. He launched the colony as a "holy experiment" based on religious tolerance.

back country

a remote and undeveloped area

fundamental

being or involving basic facts or principles

accumulate

collect or gather

Nathaniel Bacon

a farmer in the backcountry, his resentment of Berkeley and the unbalanced power of the Virginia government, lead to a rebellion, by him and other backcountry farmers. When Berkeley refused to let Bacon and other farmers fight nearby Indians, he went into Jamestown, with his own militia, burned most of the city, and drove Berkeley out of town.

Lord Baltimore

He was the founder of Maryland, a colony which offered religious freedom, and a refuge for the persecuted Roman Catholics.

James Oglethorpe

Founder and governor of the Georgia colony. He ran a tightly-disciplined, military-like colony. Slaves, alcohol, and Catholicism were forbidden in his colony. Many colonists felt that Oglethorpe was a dictator, and that (along with the colonist's dissatisfaction over not being allowed to own slaves) caused the colony to break down and Oglethorpe to lose his position as governor.

debtor

Person or country that owes money

plantation

Large estate farmed by many workers

proprietor

An owner of a store or other business

contrast

to show differences when compared

borderland

district consisting of the area on either side of a border or boundary of a country or an area

Junipero Serra

The leader of a group of Spanish missionaries who founded a chain of twenty-one missions beginning in 1769 at San Diego and stretching north of the San Francisco Bay. These missions gathered nomadic Indians into missions and taught them the values of Christianity.

presidio

a fortress established in the southwestern United States by the Spanish in order to protect their missions and other holdings

pueblo

a communal village built by Indians in the southwestern United States

function

to serve a purpose

convert

change religious beliefs, or adopt a religious belief

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