SGU histology respiratory system

98 terms by kbarkervettech

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What is the respiratory system made up of

nasal cavity, nasopharynx, larynx, trachea and lungs (air conduction and gas exchange regions)

What are the functions of the respiratory system

gas exchange, cooling, chemoreception

Out of the functions of the respiratory system, which is the most important

gas exchange

What is gas exchange secondarily involved with

acid-based balance base balance

how is cooling accomplished

evaporative water loss

In which animals is cooling especially important

birds

What else is important about cooling

control of water loss

What are the 3 regoins of the nasal cavity

cutaneous region, respiratory region, olfactory region

Rostrally, the cutaneous region (nasal vestibule) is lined by what type of epithelium

stratified sqquamous keratinized epithelium

Describe the epithelium at mid-vestibule in the cuntaneous region of the nasal cavity

thinner and non-keratinized

Caudally, the transitional zone (of the cutaneous region of the nasal cavity) is lined by what type of epithelium

stratified cuboidal or nonciliated pseudostratified epithelium

The propria submucosa of the cutaneous region of teh nasal cavity is rich in what

blood vessels, nerves, lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages

Describe the nasal diverticulum in horses

its lined by integument containing hairs, sebaceous and sweat glands

What region of the nasal cavity is the respiratory region

the caudal 2/3

The epithelium of the respiratory region of the nasal cavity is lined by what

ciliated pseudostratified columnar epitheliun having 4 types of cells

What are the 4 types of cells found in the epithelium of the respiratory region of the nasal cavity

ciliated cells, secretory cells, brush cells, basal cells

Which cells have motile cilia or numerous microvilli

ciliated cells

Which cells are serous or mucous (goblet cells)

secretory cells

Which cells have thick microvilli associated with sensory receptors

brush cells

The propria submucosa of the respiratory region of the nasal cavity is highly vascular (CAVERNOUS STRATUM) containing what

serous or mixed nasal glands, numerous nerves, and lymphatic nodules

What region of the nasal cavity is the olfactory region

the dorsocaudal portion

The olfactory region of the nasal cavity has what type of labyrinth

ethmoidal

Describe the epithelium of the olfactory region of the nasal cavity

ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium having 3 types of cells

What are the 3 types of cells found in the epithelium if the olfactory region

neurosensory olfactory cells, sustentacular cells, basal cells

Describe the neurosensory olfactory cells

bipolar cells (neurons) with dendrites extending to the lumen and axons reaching the olfactory bulb of the brain

Describe sestentacular cells

they are columnar cells

What glands are present in the propria submucosa of the olfactory regoin of the nasal cavity

mixed olfactory glands

What is the vomeronasal organ

a paired duct, located on either side of the base of the nasal septum

What does the vomeronasal organ open into

incisive duct

Describe the shape of the vomeronasal organ

cresent-shaped with a medial concave and lateral convex mucosa

What type of epithelium is found in the vomeronasal organ

pseudostratified columnar epithelium

What type of cells are found in the medial epithelium of the vomeronasal organ

neurosensory, sustentacular and basal cells

What types of cells are found in the lateral epithelium of the vomeronasal organ

ciliated and nonciliated columnar, goblet and basal cells

What does the propria submucosa of the vomeronasal organ contain

vomeronasal glands (mucous or mixed) and vomeronasal cartilage (hyaline), enclosing the organ

What is the function of the vomeronasal organ

sexual behavior by detection of odor of opposite sex

what type of epithelium is found in the nasopharynx

pseudostratified ciliated columnar

What type of cells are found in the epithelium of the nasopharynx

goblet

What is the propria submucosa of the nasopharynx composed of

loose CT containing glands

What are prominant in the dorsal portion of the nasopharynx

lymphatic nodules

What do the lymphatic nodules of the nasopharynx aggregate as

pharyngeal tonsil

What type of epithelium lines the laryngeal mucosa

stratified squamous non-ketatinized epithelium

Caudal to the vocal fold, the laryngeal mucous changes into what type of epithelium

respiratory epithelium

The epithelium over the epiglottis may contain what

taste buds

What type of CT is found in the propria submucosa of the larynx

initially its a dense irregular CT which gradually changes to loose CT

What is the propria submucosa of the larynx rich in

elastic fibers, leucocytes, plasma and mast cells

What is frequently observed in the propria submucosa of the larynx

diffuse lymphatic tissues or solitary lymphatic nodules

Where are mixed glands present in the propria submucosa of the larynx

the caudal part of the larynx

What type of cartilage are thyroid and cricoid cartilage

hyaline

The epiglottis and cuneiform process of the arytenoid cartilage contain what type of cartilage

elastic cartilage

What type of epithelium lines the trachea

pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium

What type of cells are found in the epithelium of the trachea

goblet cells, migratory cells (lymphocytes, globular leucocytes and mast cells)

What type of cells are abundant in the epithelium of the trachea in young animals

neuroendocrine cells (pyramidal shaped)

What does the propria submucosa of the trachea consist of

loose CT and a subepithelial layer of elastic fibers

What type of glands are found in the propria submucosa of the trachea

tubuloacinar seromucous glands

Describe the cartilage of the trachea

C or U shaped hyaline cartilage

What are the free ends of cartilage of the trachea bridged by

smooth muscle (external in carnivores, internal in other domestic animals)

What is the external perichondrium of the trachea surrounded by

loose CT of the adventitia

What type of pluera covers the lungs

visceral or pulmonary

What does the pleura of the lungs consist of

simple squamous epithelium and a layer of CT which is continuous with that of the interalveolar septa

The pleura of the lungs is thickest in which animals

ruminants

The pleura of the lungs is thinnest in which animals

dogs and cats

What is the lung divided into

intrapulmonary conducting airways
gas exchange area

Give examples of intrapulmonary conducting airways

bronchi and bronchioles

Give examples of gas exchange areas

respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs and alveoil

What is the bronchi subdivided into

primary, lobar and segmental bronchi

What type of epithelium lines the bronchi

pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium

What type of cells are found in the epithelium of the bronchi

goblet

What happens to the cells in the proximodistal portion of the bronchi

epithelial height and number of goblet cells decreases and Clara cells (exocrine gland) increase in number

What does the propria submucosa of the bronchi contain

loose CT with submucosal glands (decrease distally)

Describe the hyaline cartilage of the bronchi

its in the form of irregular plates and smooth muscle is interspersed between the plates

In dealing with the bronchi, proximodistally what increased and what decreases

cartilages decrease, smooth muscle increases

What is the tunica adventitia of the bronchi comprised of

loose CT with collagen and elastic fibers

Bronchioles branch repeatedly into several generations and terminate as what

terminal bronchioles

What type of epithelium lines the bronchioles

columnar or cuboidal

What types of glands are found in the epithelium of the bronchioles

ciliated and Clara cells

What is abscent in the propria submucosa of the bronchioles

cartilage and glands

The circularly arranged muscle of the bronchioles cintains what

nerve fibers between muscles

What is the tunica adventitia of the bronchioles composed of

loose CT with elastic fibers oriented circularly

What is the order of the gas exchange area of the lungs

respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, alveoli

What are respiratory bronchioles also called

transition zone

Where is the focusof most lung disorders

respiratory bronchioles

Respiratory bronchioles are similar to the terminal bronchioles with the exception that

the epithelium is interrupted by alveoli

What is present beneath the epithelium of the respiratory bronchioles

smooth muscle bundles

In which animals are the respiratory bronchioles extensive

carnivores

In which animals are respiratory bronchioles short or absent

horse, cow, pig

Where do alveolar ducts arise from

respiratory bronchioles

Where do alveolar ducts terminate

in clusters of alveoli called alveolar sac

What type of epithelium lines alveolar ducts

simple cuboidal (further up) or squamous (going further down)

What does the subepithelial CT of alveolar ducts contain

smooth muscle cells and few elastic fibers

Alveolar epithelial lining presents 2 cell types, what are they

pneumocyte type 1 (95%), pneumocyte type 2 (5%)

Describe the pneumocyte type 1 cell

a squamous epithelial cell with a cenrally placed nucleus, anchored to a continuous basal lamina

What is the pneumocyte type 2 cell also called

granular alveolar cell

Describe thepneumocyte type 2 cell

a cuboidal cell with microvilli

What is the microvilli of the pneumocyte type 2 responsible for

the production of pulmonary surfactant

What type of cells are found in the alveolar lumen

pulmonary macrophages (derived from macrophages)

What is the function of pulmonary macrophages

phagocytosis

What does the interalveolar CT consist of

a capillary plexus, fibrocytesm pericytes, lymphocytes, plasma cells, collagen and elastic fibers

What is the air-blood barrier composed of

pneumocyte type 1 cell
the basal lamina of pneumocyte type 1 and the basal lamina of capillary endothelial cells
the capillary endothelial cell
the plasmalemma of a red blood cell

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