opposed to a strong central gov't; saw undemocratic tendencies in the Constitution & insisted on the inclusion of the Bill of Rights.
Name three anti-federalists?
Thomas Jefferson, James Monroe, Patrick Henry
checks and balances
System embodied in the Constitution through which the power of each branch of government is limited by the other; the President's authority to veto legislation and Congress's power to override that veto are examples.
The idea advanced by Rousseau, Locke, and Jefferson, that government is created by voluntary agreement among the people involved and that revolution is justified if government breaks the compact by exceeding its authority.
A political system in which the central government is relatively weak and member states retain considerable sovereignty
Powers specifically given to Congress in the constitution; including the power to collect taxes, coin money, regulate foreign and interstate commerce, and declare war.
Political groups that agree on objectives and policies; the origins of political parties.
Constitution is broadly interpreted, recognizing that it could not possibly anticipate all future developments; relies on the idea of implied powers and the "necessary and proper" clause. Both views on how to interpret the Constitution came up during the debate on chartering the Bank of the United States in 1791. .
Separation of powers
The structure of the government provided for in the Constitution where authority is divided between the executive, legislative, and judicial branches; idea comes from Montesquieu's Spirit of the Laws.
According to the compact theory of the Union the states retained all powers not specifically delegated to the central government by the Constitution.
The principle that the national government is legally granted only those powers specifically delegated in the Constitution
A tax on imports (also referred to a "duty), taxes on exports are banned by the Constitution. A "protective" tariff has rates high enough to discourage imports
Marbury v. Madison (1803)
First time an act of Congress is declared nconstitutional;
established the principle of judicial review.
Things to Know: Jefferson as President - name 3
• attitude toward Federalist programs
• Louisiana Purchase and reaction to it
• foreign policy and neutral rights
Things to Know: The Supreme Court under John Marshall - name 5
major cases and significance of decisions
Marbury v Madison, Fletcher v Peck, Dartmouth College v Woodward, McCulloch v Maryland, Gibbons v Ogden
Fletcher v. Peck (1810)
First time a state law is declared unconstitutional; contract clause ofthe Constitution overrode state law.
Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819)
The charter of a private corporation is protected under the Constitution.
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
Upheld constitutionality of the Bank of the United States;example of loose construction of the Constitution
(favored by the Federalists).
Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)
Affirmed federal control of interstate commerce under
commerce clause of the Constitution.
Presidencies of James Madison and James
Monroe - name 3
• foreign policy background and results of the War of 1812 and the Monroe Doctrine (1823)
• economic nationalism-development of national transportation system and tariff policy
• shift from cottage industry to factory system
Things to Know: The Age of Jackson - name
~ election of 1824 - "corrupt bargain"
~ political view of Democrats
~ strong executive-veto as instrument of political power
~ Second Bank of the United States
~ nullification crisis
~ Indian policy-Indian Removal
Economic program advanced by Henry Clay that included support for a national bank, high tariffs, and internal improvements; emphasized strong role for federal government in the economy.
Refers to the claim from the supporters of Andrew Jackson that John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay had worked out a deal to ensure that Adams was elected President by the House of Representatives in 1824.
An attempt to withhold good from export in order to influence the policies of the former purchasers.
Era of Good Feelings
Refers to the period after the War of 1812 during the presidency of James Monroe, when competition among political parties was at a low ebb
British practice of taking American sailors from American ships and forcing them into the British navy; a factor in the War of 1812
Included roads, canals, railroads; essentially, an internal transportation network that would bind the country together.
The right of the Supreme Court to declare a law passed by Congress unconstitutional; the principle was established in Marbury v. Madison, but was original sketched out in Hamilton's essay #78 in The Federalist Papers
Informal group of friends who advised Jackson during his administration. Jackson believed that the "official" Cabinet's main function was to carry out his orders
Compromise worked out by Henry Clay in 1820: slavery would be prohibited in the Louisiana territory north of36°30'; Missouri would enter the Union as a slave state, Maine would enter the Union as a free state
a United States policy that sought to insulate the Western Hemisphere from European intervention.
The theory advanced by John Calhoun in response to the Tariff of 1828 (the Tariff of Abominations); states, acting through a popular convention, could declare a law passed by Congress "null and void"; the roots of the idea
go back to Jefferson and Madison's compact theory of
government and are originally spelled out in the
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
A term used by Jackson's opponents to describe the state banks that the federal government used for new revenue deposits in an attempt to destroy the Second Bank of the United States; the practice continued after
the charter for the Second Bank expired in 1836.
Essentially, political patronage; public offices went to political supporters during Jackson's presidency.
Those nationalist members of Congress who strongly supported war with Great Britain on the eve of the War
of 1812; included Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun
A national political coalition formed to oppose the Jacksonian Democrats
Things to know: Washington as President - name 3
• development of the Cabinet
• economic problems facing the early Republic and Hamilton's response
• relations with Great Britain and France
Things to know: rise of political parties during Washington - name 4
• election of John Adams
• issues that led to Republican opposition
• relations with France and the Alien and Sedition Acts and Republic response
• Jefferson and the "Revolution 1800