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Test 2

Define Pharmacology

The study of drugs, their actions on living organisms, and how they affect the body cells

What is the most important goal of pharmacology?

The safe and accurate administration of meds

What 4 things do we need to know about the Pt?

Current HHx
-present circumstances
-pain
-nausea
-Sleep
-Religious patterns

Present HHx
Past HHx
Drug Hx

Define Pharmacotherapeutics

Use of drugs to treat, cure, relieve, or prevent disease

Define Pharmacodynamics

Process by which drug changes body

Pharmacokinetics

study of time req. for absorption durtaion and action&effect, distribution in body and method of excretion

4 Drug Names

Chemical Name- chemical make up
Generic Name-before drug is approved
Offical name-given by USP often same as Gen.
Brand name-Trade name given by manufact..

Examples of the 4 Drug names

Chemical-aetylsalicylic acid
Generic-Aspirin
Official-Aspirin
Brand- Bufferin, Excedrin, Bayer, St. Josephs

Drugs are classified how?

By:
Characteristics
Symptoms relieved
Desired Effects

Aspirin is classified how-

Analgesic
Antipyretic
NSAID
Anticoagulant

Absorption (p 839)

...

Route of Administration

Doctors orders
Nurse cant change independently

Acidity or Alkalinity

Acid- stomach absorbs well
Base- better absorbed in intestines

Distribution can be affected by:

Circulation
Membrane permeability
H20 and fat
Protein binding

Membrane permeability

blood brain barrier
-fat soluble meds get through but H20 doesnt
-antibiotics have difficulty

Placental barrier
-not very selective about what crosses

Define Teratogenic

agent or factor that causes malformation of embryo

OA variations of H20 and fat:

lower water= doesn't distribute as well
higher fat= longer duration of drug action
slower drug distribution
lower weight means higher Cnx

Protein binding:

Agonist- same response as physiologic/ endogenous substance

Antagonist- inhibits cell function by occupying receptor sites

Albumin

binds to many drugs making them ineffective

Descrie biotransformation

when meds change into less active or inactive form, as related to the metabolism

Main organs of Excretion:

1* = Kidneys
2*= bowel, lungs,
exocrine glands- breast sweat

Give 2 examples of pharmacodynamics

Insulin, or synthetic thyroid hormone

Effects to Drugs

Therapeutic Rxn
Side Effects
Adverse Effects
Toxic effects
Idosyncratic rxn
Allergic rxn

Mild Allergic reaction

Uticaria- raised irregularly shaped lesion

Rash- small raised vesicles

Pruritus- itching of skin

Rhinitis-inflammation of mucus membrane of nose

Lacrimal Tearing- excessive tearing

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