What is a "job"?
Elements = smallest identifiable behavioral components of work activities
Task = one or more job elements performed in order to accomplish some particular goal
Task dimension = grouping of similar types of tasks
Position = collection of tasks performed by a single person (number of positions = number of workers in organization)
Job = group of positions which are identical in their major or significant tasks and are given same job title
Job category (or occupation) = jobs in different organizations that are highly similar
Job family = group of similar occupations
group of positions which are identical in their major or significant tasks and are given same job title
What is Job Analysis?
Job analysis is the process of collecting, analyzing, and interpreting information on job requirements, rewards and work related activities
Job analysis forms the cornerstone of most human resource related activities such as recruitment, selection, training, performance appraisal, compensation, etc.
Competency Modeling is a newer variation on Job Analysis. Competency modeling analyzes the people in the job, rather than the job itself
Focus of Job Analysis: Why Do we do Job Analysis?
Job Requirements (most common)
Job Rewards (very rare)
Competency Based (increasingly common)
* Job Evaluation for Pay and Equity Decisions
* Criterion Development for Performance Appraisals and validation
* Job Descriptions and Specifications for Selection
* Legal Compliance
Task (or job) oriented approaches (identify)
behavioral requirement = identifies worker actions necessary to competently perform the job
behavior description = identifies frequent or typical worker actions in a job
KSAO (or Worker/Person) oriented approaches (infer)
personal characteristics (or ability requirements) = the KSAOs that underlie behavioral requirements
Knowledge - Information used on the job
Skill - Proficiency acquired through practice
Ability - Capacity to acquire skill and knowledge
Other Characteristics - Personality, Work Style, Motives
Distinct from BFOQs
What is a Job Description?
(and what is included in it?)
* Job title
* Job summary = overall, general statement of major tasks and duties
* Task statements, task dimensions, frequency and importance
* Job context = set of external attributes of the job (e.g., work load, job variety, feedback, physical demands of the task, working conditions)
What is a Job Specification?
(and what is included in it?)
* KSAOs and relative weight
What are the Methods of job requirements job analysis?
Prior information (e.g, existing job descriptions, training manuals, performance appraisals, ONET)
* Observation by job analyst
* Interviews with incumbents and supervisors
* Critical Incidents Technique
* Self-report in the form of task checklists/questionnaires/inventories
*Diaries of activities
*Work participation by job analyst
*Technical conferences with job experts
As always, multiple method approach best
What are the Sources of information for job analysis?
* Trained job analysts
* Subject Matter Experts (SMEs)
What are some potential concerns of Methods and Sources in job requirements job analysis?
Incumbents embellishing work duties?
Performance of employee relevant?
Familiarity with job (experts/non-experts) relevant?
Functional Job Analysis (FJA)
Can be used to compare very different jobs in terms of degree of complexity involved in three functional areas and relative extent to which function is included in each task
O*NET is based on DOT which is based on a modified FJA technique
Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ)
Behavioral description questionnaire (worker-oriented) that allows for comparisons among different jobs
194 item PAQ has six major divisions:
* Input of information
* Mental processes
* Work output
* Interpersonal activities/relationships with others
* Work situation and job context
* Miscellaneous aspects
Allows for comparisons of very different jobs
(Define O*NET and explain its history and scope)
Occupational Information Network
A federally sponsored system of job and career data.
Department of Labor designed O*NET to replace the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT)
DOT described jobs in a narrative format, making comparisons across occupations difficult
Enables the description of any job in the economy in terms of standard content domains defined by experts
Also designed to identify and describe worker characteristics and transferable skills by cataloging key components of occupations across jobs
Covers the emergence of technological changes
Explain the advantages of O*NET
All occupations described on same set of common dimensions allowing wide ranging comparisons across jobs and job families
Most content dimensions have behaviorally-anchored scales that identify the level required of the job
Crosswalks to existing government sponsored occupational classification systems and labor market data