The Monroe doctrine was essentially intended to prevent:
the Western Hemisphere off-limits to European colonization. European powers would attempt to restore Spain's former colonies, attempts would be viewed as a hostile act against the U.S
In the Florida purchase treaty:
Spain gave up Florida and claims to Oregon in exchange for US giving up claims on Texas and solidifying the Louisiana border.
John Marshal's decisions as chief justice revealed his belief in:
Strong National government. Federal government overrides the action of states. All you have to do if make laws that are in best "interest" of the people and they are constitutional
The Rapid growth and development of the West after 1815 were stimulated by:
The industrial revolution
The Panic of 1819:
First national financial panic since Washington took office. Caused by over-speculation on land on the frontier. Brought about deflation, depression, bankruptcies, bank failures (Hard times), soup houses, debtors prison. Bank of US becomes enemy of the West due to foreclosures.
Henry Clay's American System called for:
1. Re-charter bank of U.S.
2. Create a protective tariff
3. Use funds from bank and tariff to build federal system of roads and canals
America's postwar nationalism manifested itself in:
1. War heightened nationalism
2. Federalists regarded as sectionalist
3. American Literature developed (James Fenimore Cooper-Leather stocking Tales, Washington Irving- Legend of Sleepy Hallow)
4. American Art
6. Hudson River School
7. Handsome new capital built
8. Army expanded
The Monroe Doctrine was:
An expression of the illusion of deepening American isolationism from world affairs.
The Russo-American Treaty of 1824 fixed the southernmost limits of Russian occupation of North America at:
Latin America's reaction to the Monroe Doctrine can be best described as:
Unconcerned or unimpressed.
The doctrine of non-colonization in the Monroe Doctrine was:
Was a response to the apparent designs of the Russians in Alaska and Oregon.
Britain opposed Spain's reestablishing its authority in Latin American countries that had successfully revolted because:
The ports of these nations were now open to lucrative trade with Britain.
Spain sold Florida to the United States because:
Adams assailed Spain for violation the Treaty of 1795 for not suppressing outlaws. They are having trouble controlling its borders so they would lose it anyway.
Andrew Jackson's military exploits were instrumental in the United States gaining:
Florida and Spain's part of Oregon Territory and Losing claims in Texas.
The Treaty of 1818 with England:
Agreed to share Oregon territory with Britain for 10 years to avoid fighting again.
John Marshal's rulings upheld a defense of property rights against public pressure in:
Fletcher vs. Peck.
People moving to the Old Northwest, settlers from the North wanted to do all of the following:
1. Tame the land
2. Tame the people
3. Build canals
4. Build roads
People moved into the Old Northwest for all of the following reasons:
1. Better transportation
2. The Indian threat was gone
3. To achieve better social position
4. To get their own democratic community
In McCulloch vs. Maryland, Cohen's vs. Virginia, and Gibbons vs. Ogden, Chief Justice Marshal's rulings limited the extent of:
John Marshal uttered his famous legal dictum that "the power to tax involved the power to destroy" in:
McCulloch vs. Maryland.
In interpreting the constitution, John Marshal:
Established precedent of judicial review. Looked at cases through Federalist and Hamiltonian lenses. Curbed states rights. Favored "loose construction".
All the following were results of the Missouri Compromise:
1. Extremists in both the North and South were not satisfied.
2. Missouri entered the Union as a slave state.
3. Maine entered the Union as a free state.
4. The balance between the North and South was kept even.
As a result of the Missouri Compromise:
Missouri could enter as a slave state and Maine enter as a free state. Louisiana territory split at 36/30' N. with everything north being closed to slavery forever.
The first state entirely west of the Mississippi River to be carved out of the Louisiana Territory was:
When the House of Representatives passed the Tallmadge Amendment in response to Missouri's request for admission to the Union, the south thought that the Amendment:
Blocked this amendment because this would threaten sectional balance.
The western land boom resulted from all the following:
1. It was a continuation of the old westward movement.
2. Land exhaustion in older tobacco states
3. Speculators accepted small down payments.
4. The frontier was pacified with the defeat of the Indians.
The panic of 1819 brought with it all of the following:
2. Bank failures
3. Debtor's prisons
Democratic-Republicans opposed Henry Clay's American System because:
They believed that it was unconstitutional.
New England opposed the American System's federally constructed roads because:
They would drain away needed population to the West.
Henry Clay's call for federally funded roads and canals received whole-hearted endorsement from:
At the end of the war of 1812, British manufacturers:
began dumping their goods in America at extremely low prices.
Post-war of 1812 nationalism could be seen in all of the following:
1. The way in which American painters depicted the beauty of American landscapes.
2. The building of a more handsome national capital.
3. An expanded army and navy.
4. Development of a national literature.
The delegates of the Hartford Convention adopted resolutions that included a call for:
A constitutional amendment requiring a two-thirds vote in Congress before war was declared.
At the peace conference of Ghent, the British began to withdraw many of its earlier demands for all of the following reasons:
1. Reverses in upper New York
2. A loss at Baltimore
3. Increasing war weariness in Britain
4. Concern about the still dangerous France
One result of the victories of the American Navy was:
A British Naval blockade of the American coast.
The Battle of New Orleans:
Saw British troops defeated by Andrew Jackson's soldiers. Stopped British advance in the south.
The most devastating defeat suffered by the British during the War of 1812 took place at the battle of:
The British attack on Baltimore:
At Fort McHenry. Inspired the writing of "The Star-Spangled Banner."
Perhaps the key battle of the War of 1812, because it protected the United States from full-scale invasion and possible dissolution, was the Battle of:
Americas campaign against Canada in the war of 1812 could be best described as:
Poorly conceived because it split-up the military.
The performance of the United States' navy in the war of 1812 could be best described as:
Much better than that of the army.
The war of 1812 was one of the worst fought wars in American history for all the following reasons:
1. War hawks minority
2. US militarily unprepared
3. US lacked unity
4. US strategy was poor
The War of 1812 was one of the worst fought wars in United States history because:
1. War hawks minority
2. US militarily unprepared
3. US lacked unity
4. US strategy was poor
During the War of 1812, the New England states:
1. Were not completely loyal.
2. Governors would not allow their militias to serve out of state.
3. Lent morel money and sent more food to the British army than to the American army
Federalists opposed the acquisition of Canada because:
Too agrarian therefore more likely to vote Republican.
Seafaring New England opposed the War of 1812 because of all the following:
1. The northeast Federalists sympathized with England
2. It resented the Republican's sympathy with Napoleon
3. Federalists opposed the acquisition of Canada
4. It could result in more agrarian states
In 1812, James Madison turned to war:
To restore confidence in the republican experiment. Not knowing that the British had repealed the orders in council.
The Battle of Tippecanoe resulted in:
William Harrison defeating/killing Tecumseh. Kills the dream of an Indian confederacy.
Arrange the following events in chronological order:
1. Embargo Act
2. War hawks
3. Battle of Tippecanoe
4. Declaration of war on Britain
The following are the only argument not put forward by the war hawks as justification for a declaration of war against Britain:
Preferred action or war to defend American rights
1. The British armed Indians and incited them to raid frontier settlements
2. British impressments policies were an affront to American nationalism
3. British Canada and Spanish Florida were attractive and easily obtainable prizes of war
4. The orders in council stopped the flow of Western farm products to Europe
The war hawks demanded war with Britain because they wanted to do all the following:
1. Wipe out renewed Indian resistance
2. Defend American rights
3. Expand American territory
4. Revenge the manhandling of American sailor
By 1810, the most insistent demand for a declaration of war against Britain came from:
The west and South.
President James Madison made a major foreign-policy mistake when he:
accepted Napoleon's promise to recognize America's rights and Napoleon takes advantage and removes restrictions.
Macon's Bill No. 2:
1. Tried to bride England or France into respecting US rights.
2. Removed trade blocks—but if either France or Britain lifted its commercial restrictions the US would stop trade with the other.
President Jefferson's foreign policy of economic coercion:
Stimulated manufacturing in the United States.
Thomas Jefferson's embargo failed for all the following reasons:
1. Underestimated British determination
2. Overestimation of British dependence
3. British produced a bumper crop
4. Opening of Latin American ports
5. Miscalculated the difficulty of enforcing it
To deal with British and French violations of America's Neutrality, Thomas Jefferson:
Put economic pressures on Britain and France by passing the Embargo act which forbids all exports.
After killing Alexander Hamilton in a duel, Aaron Burr:
Plotted to secede from the US because they were fed up with Jefferson.
Louis and Clark's expedition through the Louisiana Purchase territory yielded all the following:
1. Scientific mission with specific goals
2. Mapped the Louisiana territory
3. Added to American claim on Oregon
4. Demonstrated viability of an overland route to the pacific
5. Hair-raising adventure stories
6. Knowledge of the Indians of the region
Thomas Jefferson was conscience-stricken about the purchase of the Louisiana Territory from France because:
The large land acquisitions not mentioned in the constitution. He proposed that the constitution be amended. (Jefferson was a "strict constructionist" which meant that he felt that he could only do what was actually mentioned in the Constitution. Alexander Hamilton was a "loose constructionist" which meant that he felt the president could do whatever he wanted as long as it was not denied in the Constitution). They switched opinions. Republicans in senate approved while loosely constructionists complained how it was unconstitutional
Jefferson had authorized American negotiators to purchase only _________ from France.
New Orleans and Florida
Napoleon chose to sell Louisiana to the United States because:
1. He had suffered misfortunes in Santo Domingo (failed to take it back from Toussaint L'Overture)
2. He hoped that the territory would one day help America thwart their ambitions of the British
3. He did not want to drive the US in arms of the British.
4. Yellow fever killed many French troops.
In order to purchase New Orleans from France, Thomas Jefferson:
Decided to make an alliance with his old enemy, Britain. He sends Livingston and Monroe to France to purchase it for $10 million.
Arrange these events in chronological order:
1. Louisiana Purchase
2. Burr's trial for treason
3. Chesapeake incident
4. Embargo Act
Thomas Jefferson ceased his opposition to the expansion of the navy when the:
Pasha of Tripoli declared war on the United States.
Thomas Jefferson's first major foreign policy decision was to:
Sends ships to Tripoli/Mediterranean.
Thomas Jefferson's failed attempt to impeach and convict Supreme Court justice Samuel Chase for "high crimes and misdemeanors" meant that:
Court not reshaped through impeachment. Judicial independence and the separation of powers had been preserved.
John Marshal, as chief justice of the United States, helped to strengthen the judicial branch of government by:
asserting the doctrine of judicial review of congressional legislation.
The case of Marbury vs. Madison involved the question of who had the right to:
declare an act of Congress unconstitutional.
The legal precedent for judicial review was established when:
the Supreme Court declared the Judiciary Act of 1789 unconstitutional.
As chief justice of the united states, John Marshall helped to ensure that:
the political and economic systems were based on a strong central government.
Before he became chief justice of the Supreme Court, John Marshall's service at Valley Forge during the American Revolution convinced him:
of the drawbacks of feeble central authority.
The chief justice who carried out, more than any other federal official, the ideas of Alexander Hamilton concerning a powerful federal government was:
Thomas Jefferson and his followers opposed John Adam's last minute appointment of new federal judges mainly because:
it was an attempt by a defeated party to entrench itself in the government.
When it came to the major Federalist economic programs, Thomas Jefferson as president:
Cemented peaceful transfer of power by not destroying what came before. Left practically all of them intact except the excise tax.
Upon becoming president, Thomas Jefferson, and the republicans in congress immediately repealed:
excise tax on whiskey because supports the farmers.
Thomas Jefferson's presidency was characterized by his:
by his moderation in the administration of public policy.
As president, Thomas Jefferson's stand on the political issues that he had previously championed:
was reversed (Jefferson did not tamper with the Federalist programs for funding the national debt at par and assuming the Revolutionary War debts of the states; he launched no attack on the Bank of the United States; nor did they repeal the mildly protective Federalist tariff; years later, the Democratic-Republicans embraced Federalism to such a degree as to recharter a bigger bank and to boost the protective tariff to higher levels). Became a loose constructionist of the constitution with the Louisiana territory.
Thomas Jefferson saw his election and his mission as president to include all the following:
1. To return to the original spirit of the revolution (political and economic freedom for the commoner)
2. Restore the republican experiment
3. Check the growth of the republican by allowing federalist ideas
4. Halt the decay of virtue
5. Wanted to unify people "we are all republicans, we are all federalists"
Thomas Jefferson was elected president by the House of Representatives when:
a few federalists refrained from voting.
Thomas Jefferson's "revolution of 1800" was remarkable in that it:
had a peaceful and orderly transfer of power because of election results accepted by all parties.
In 1800, Thomas Jefferson was chosen president by the:
House of Representatives. House of Representatives.
In the 1800 election, Thomas Jefferson won the state of New York because:
he had help from Aaron Burr who controls the political scheme in NY.
In the election of 1800, the federalists accused Thomas Jefferson of all the following:
1. Robbing a widow's trust fund.
2. Slept and fathered children with slaves.
3. Attacked by church for being an atheist.
One of the greatest problems that John Adams and the federalists faced in the election of 1800 was:
The Federalist were split over not going to war with France.
One of the first lessons learned by the Jeffersonians after their victory in the election of 1800 was:
that it is easier to condemn from the stump than to govern consistently. (It is easy to criticize when not in office; it is yet another to be in office).
Thomas Jefferson argued that a landless class of voters could be avoided in part by:
Jeffersonians believed in all the following:
a. Opposition to national debt
b. Agriculture as the ideal occupation
c. Freedom of speech
d. Central authority should be kept to a minimum
Thomas Jefferson favored a political system in which:
the states retained the majority of political power.
Thomas Jefferson appealed to all the following groups except:
1. Small shopkeepers
2. The underprivileged
3. The idle class
According to the federalists, the duty by judging the unconstitutionality of legislation passed by Congress lay with:
The Supreme Court.
According to the compact theory advocated by Jefferson and Madison:
The national government was a creation of the 13 sovereign states.
The Sedition Act:
Threatened the first amendment freedoms. 10 editors tried and convicted. Violated Constitution but upheld by Federalist courts.
The Federalist-dominated congress's Alien act was aimed at: ___________ whereas the Sedition act was primarily aimed at: ______________
recent immigrants, newspapers/ Adams
The main purpose of the Alien and Sedition acts was to:
Silence and punish critics of the federalists. Prevent the democratic republicans from gaining to much power.
President Adams sought a peaceful solution to the undeclared war with France in order to:
Prevent his enemy Hamilton from gaining to much power and a full-scale war.
The United States finally negotiated a peace settlement with France in the 1800 mainly because Napoleon:
was busy with the war between France and Europe and did not want to have to deal with a war between France and America also.
Foreign relations between the United States and France deteriorated in the late 1790s over:
The French seizure of American ships.
The French grew angry with the united states after 1794 because:
The jays treat violated their 1778 alliance treaty
Washington's farewell address in 1796:
Warned US against the dangers of permanent foreign alliances.
Jay's Treaty contained all of the following provisions:
1. A promise to evacuate its chain of forts on U.S. soil
2. British consent to pay damages for the recent seizure of American Ships
3. That Americans were bound to pay debts owed to British merchants before the revolution
4. No promise by the British to pay for future seizure of American Ships.
Some of George Washington's major contributions as president was:
Keeping the national out of foreign wars, expanding trade, expanding westward, and forming a strong central government.
John Jay's 1794 treaty with Britain:
Created a deeper split between the Federalists and Democratic Republicans.
The United States acquired free navigation of the Mississippi River in:
The Pinckney Treaty of 1795 with Spain
In Jay's Treaty, the British:
promised to evacuate the chain of forts in the old northwest. Pay for some shipping damage.
Hamilton's position on the war between Britain and France in 1793 was primarily influenced by:
The national governments dependence on customs collections for revenue.
Britain made neutrality very difficult for the united states during the French and British conflicts of the 1790s by:
1. Selling arms to Indians
2. Seized American ships in French West Indies
3. Impressed Americans into service in British navy or threw them into dungeons
The Treaty of Greenville signed in August with the Miami confederation resulted in all of the following:
1. Giving to the United States vast tracts of land in the old northwest.
2. The Indians receiving $20,000 lump sum payment
3. An annual annuity of $9,000 to the Indians
Washington's Neutrality proclamation clearly illustrated the truism that:
Self interest if the basic cement of alliances
During its first quarter century as a nation, one major problems facing America was:
The rivalry and warfare between France and Britain.
Arrange the Following events in chronological order:
1. Neutrality act
2. Jays Treaty
3. XYZ affair
4. Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions.
Washington's neutrality proclamation of 1793:
The US to remain neutral in wars until they become stronger. Americans self Interest. Still traded with both sides.
When the French Revolution developed into a war with Britain, George Washington, and the American government:
Remained neutral with the neutrality act of 1793.
The Franco-American alliance of 1778:
Leaves the United States obligated to help France defend their West Indies during the French Revolution.
The political party of the "outs" that provided the "loyal opposition" to the party in power in the 1790s was:
The democratic republicans.
The event of the 1790s that has left the deepest scar on American political social life is:
The French Revolution
Opposition by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison to the financial plan of Alexander Hamilton resulted in:
Formation of permanent political parties. Creation of the democratic republicans/ Jeffersonian/ national republic/ republic.
Match the political leader with his positions on the public policy in the 1790s:
1. Hamilton- Privileges for the upper class, Pro-British, potent central government, government support for business.
2. Jefferson-Sympathy for the common people, pay off the national debt, Pro-French, universal education.
The Founding Fathers has not envisioned the existence of permanent political parties because they:
Did not exist until after the end of the Whiskey Rebellion. Saw opposition to the government as disloyal.
The Whiskey Rebellion of 1794 arose in southwestern Pennsylvania when the federal government:
enforced excise tax on whiskey and had tariffs.
Which of the following pairs of items are related to each other:
1. Implied powers- "necessary and proper" clause
2. Strict construction- tenth amendment
3. Loose construction- "elastic" clause
4. "Necessary and proper"- clause-vested powers
Alexander Hamilton's proposed bank of the United States was:
based on the "necessary and proper" (help carry out the govt. vested
Hamilton expected that the revenue to pay the interest on the national debt would come from:
customs, duties, excise taxes.
The aspect of Hamilton's financial program that received the least support in congress was:
a protective tariff.
Alexander Hamilton believed that a limited national debt:
was beneficial because people to whom the government owed money would work hard to make the nation a success.
Alexander Hamilton's financial plan for strengthening the economy and bolstering national credit proposed all the following:
1. Fund a national debt
2. Assuming state debt
3. Establishing a national bank
4. A low protective wall around infant industries
All of the following were parts of Alexander Hamilton's economic program:
1. Wanted a protective tariff to protect American business
2. Placed an excise tax on whiskey
3. Created a bank of the US
4. Foreign trade
5. Funding the entire national debt at "par"
As Secretary of the Treasury, Alexander Hamilton's first objective was to:
Bolster national credit by assuming the debts of the states was incurred during the revolutionary war. Get America out of debt.
Hamilton believed that, together his funding and assumption programs would:
Gain the monetary and political support of the rich for the federal government.
Alexander Hamilton's financial program for the economic development of the United States favored:
All of the following are guarantees provided by the bill of rights:
1. Freedom of religion
4. Assembly 5. Petition
One of the first jobs facing the new government formed under the constitution was to:
create a bill of rights.
The Bill of Rights was intended to protect _________ against the potential tyranny of_________
individual liberties, a central government.
One of the major criticisms of the constitution as drafted in Philadelphia was that it:
did not contain a bill of rights (guarantees for individual rights)
match the individual with his office in the new government:
a) Thomas Jefferson-secretary of state
b) Alexander Hamilton-secretary of treasury
c) Henry Knox-secretary of war
The constitution did not provide for the creation of a(n):
cabinet but mentions the heads of executive departments.
Regarding the central authority, early Americans saw it as all the following:
1. Something to be distrusted
2. Something to be watched
3. Something to be curbed
4. A necessary evil