an organized effort by office holders, candidates, activists, and voters to pursue their common interests by gaining and exercising power through the electoral process.
the office holders who organize themselves and pursue policy objectives under a party label.
the workers and activists who make up the party's formal organization structure.
Party in the electorate
the voters who consider themselves allied or associated with the party.
a party organization that recruits voter loyalty with tangible incentives and is characterized by a high degree of control over member activity.
the election of party candidates through the ballots of qualified voters rather that at party nomination conventions.
Civil Service Laws
these acts removed the staffing of the bureaucracy from political parties and created a professional bureaucracy filled through competition.
politics that focuses on specific issues rather than on party, candidate, or other loyalties.
to vote for candidates of different parties for various offices in the same election.
politics that focuses directly on the candidates, their particular issues, and character, rather than on party affiliation.
a shifting of party coalition groups in the electorate that remains in place for several elections. (voters may change parties, and the youngest group of voters may permanently adopt the label of the newly dominant party)
an election that signals a party realignment through voter polarization around new issues.
the gradual rearrangement of party coalitions, based more on demographic shifts than on shocks to the political system.
a group made up of interests or organizations that join forces for the purpose of electing public officials.
National party platform
a statement of the general and specific philosophy and policy goals of a political party, usually promulgated at the national convention.
a voting system that apportions legislative seats according to the percentage of the vote won by a particular political party. System often used in European countries.
an electoral system in which the party that receives at least one more vote than any other party wins the election. U.S. has this system.
a party conclave (meeting) held in the presidential election year for the purposes of nominating a presidential and vice presidential ticket and adopting a platform. Held every four years.
institutional collection of policy-oriented researchers and academics who are sources of policy ideas. Republicans have more think tanks than Democrats.
the virtually unregulated money funneled through political parties under the auspice (protection) of party building.
funds that can be used for direct electioneering but that are limited and regulated by the Federal Elections Commission.
a citizen's person affinity for a political party, usually expressed by his or her tendency to vote for the candidate of that party.
a general decline in party identification and loyalty in the electorate.
media providing the public with new information about subjects of public interest.
a form of newspaper publishing in vogue in the late nineteenth century that featured pictures, comics, color, and sensationalized, oversimplified news coverage. Practiced by William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer.
a form of journalism, in vogue in the early twentieth century, concerned with reforming government and business conduct.
the traditional form of mass media, comprising newspapers, magazines, newsletters, and journals.
television, radio, cable, and satellite services.
technologies such as the Internet that blur the line between media sources and create new opportunities for the dissemination of news and other information.
an association of broadcast stations (radio or television) that share programming through a financial arrangement.
local television statements that carry the programming of a national network.
an electronic delivery of news gathered by the news service's correspondence and sent to all member news media organizations.
targeting media programming at specific populations within society. Example: FOX is conservative leaning, CNN is liberal leaning.
web-based journal entries that provide an editorial and news outlet for citizens.
Government attempts to regulate the substance of the mass media.
Equal time rule
the rule that requires broadcast stations to sell air time equally to all candidates in a political campaign if they choose to sell it to any.
Rule in effect from 1949 to 1985 requiring broadcasters to cover events adequately and to present contrasting views on important public issues.
a document offering an official comment or position.
a relatively restricted session between a press secretary or aide and the press.
an unrestricted session between an elected official and the press.
information provided to a journalist that will not be attributed to a named source.
information provided to a journalist that will not be attributed to any source.
Off the record
Information provided to a journalist that will not be released to the public.
On the record
Information provided to a journalist that can be released and attributed by name to the source.
New York Times Co. v. Sullivan:
The Supreme Court concluded that "actual malice" must be proved to support a finding on libel against a public figure. (just publishing false info isn't enough)
the influence of news sources on public opinion.
the constant process of forming the list of issues to be addressed by government. I.e. Press contributed to the finding of Elizabeth Smart and the implementation of the Amber Alert system.
The process by which a news organization defines a political issue and consequently affects opinion about the issue.
the myriad [countless] relationships that individuals enjoy that facilitate the resolution of community problems through collective action.
the tendency to form small-scale associations for the public good.
an organized group that tries to influence public policy.
political scientist David B. Truman's theory that interest groups form in part to counteract the efforts of other groups.
Public interest group
an organization that seeks a collective good that will not selectively and materially benefit group members. (For example, many upper and middle class people belonged to Progressive era groups.)
Economic interest group
a group with the primary purpose of promoting the financial interests of its members.
funds that an appropriations bill designates for a particular purpose within a state or congressional district. (Money targeted for programs for building roads, schools, enhancing parks or waterways, etc)
Political action committee (PAC)
federally mandated, officially registered fund-raising committee that represents interest groups in the political process.
interest group representative who seeks to influence legislation that will benefit his or her organization or client through political persuasion.
a group that represents a specific industry.
the activities of a group or organization that seeks to influence legislation and persuade political leaders to support the group's position.
a person who finances a group or individual activity.
something of value that cannot be withheld from a non member of a group, for example, a tax write-off or a better environment.
Free rider problem
potential members fail to join a group because they can get the benefit, or collective good, sought by the group without contributing effort.