What did the articles of confederation and the US constitution fail to guarantee?
Non white men and women have the same legal rights
Who is the benefactor of the rights and privileges guaranteed under the equal protection and due process of the 5th and 14th amendments
Is all discrimination unconstitutional?
What do courts use to determine when unequal treatment is legal?
In the United states slavery was ______________________by the constitution as it was first written?
Which amendment ended slavery thoroughout the US?
What inherent characteristics are currently protected from discrimination under the constitution
Race, age, national origin and sex
What 1967 US supreme court decision determined state laws barring interracial marriage to be unconstitutional?
Loving vs Virginia
What types of discrimination, based on the rational basis test, have the courts been willing to allow.
Age, physical and mental disabilities, and sexual orientation
Between 1810 and 1850, how many people managed to escape slavery via the underground railroad?
Which constitutional amendments were passed in the aftermath of the civil war, and codified the victory of the North.
What were laws passed immediately after the civil war by southern states that limited the rights of "freedmen"or former slaves called?
What is another name for the civil rights act of 1872, which made it a federal crime to deprive individuals for their rights?
The Anti-Klu Klux Klan Act
What tactics were used in southern states during the Jim Crow era to deny African Americans their voting rights?
White primary, poll tax, literacy tests, grandfather clause
What was one of the main targets of the NAACP for the next several decades after their formation?
Separate but equal doctrine
Who enacted the Jim Crow laws?
State and local Govts in the south
What year saw Rosa Parks challenge the constitutionality of Jim Crow laws in Alabama?
When did the Supreme court rule that segregated classrooms in graduate school was unconstitutional?
What decision of the US Supreme court in 1954 ruled that segregated schools violated the equal protection clause?
Struck down by the equal but separate doctrine
Who was the first African American to sit on the US Supreme court
How old was MLK Jr. when he took the leadership of the civil rights movement in Alabama?
What did the Civil Rights act of 1968 seed to do?
End discriminatory practices in housing, mortgage lending and the sale and rental of housing
From 1965 to 2008, what happened as a result of the voting rights act?
Black voters rose from 7% to 82%
What type of discrimination did proponents of the ERA argue that the strict scrutiny test should be applied?
race, religion and ethnic based discrimination
What congressional act allowed Native Americans to have a right to US Citizenship?
Indian Citizenship act of 1924
What rights for women were specified in the declaration of sentiments?
right to vote, educational and employment opportunities, own property.
Who chaired the commission on the Status of women between 1961-1963?
What outcome resulted from most of the 370 treaties between Native-American tribes and the federal Govt between 1778 and 1870?
They renigged on promise and the tribes received no land
what native American movement, formed in 1968, pursued aggressive tactics in an attempt to gain full legal equality?
American Indian Movement
What 1971 court decision established Latinos as a legally recognized minority group in the US?
Corpus Christi Independent School District vs Cisners
Today, the largest percentage of Asian American derives from which country of origin?
What year saw the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act, which enhances the federal prohibition of discrimination against people with disabilities?
What things do colleges and universities use affirmative action policies to ensure a student body is diverse?
Which president is the first to use the term affirmative action?
Political socialization is the process by which we develop our political _________and ________ throughout our lives.
values and opinions
Historically, what two things have the strongest influence on political socialization?
family and school
what are the agents of socialization?
family, media, schools, churches, peers and leaders
Who influences whether we are civically active participants and also what we believe?
What four ways do the media contribute to the political socialization of americans?
TV, Internet, radio and print
in a 2011 poll of "Political Party Affiliation by Religiousness", which party had the highest percentage of non religious Americans?
What groups are representative of well established differences in party affiliation and ideology?
racial and ethnic minorities and whites, latinos, Asians men and women
What is the gender Gap?
The difference in mens and womens views and voting preference
What external influences do first generation activists identify as being important in motivating them to civic activity?
School, media, friends, public policies
When are children in the US first exposed to political socialization by being encouraged to believe in democracy and express patriotism?
Name the peer groups that influence political socialization?
Friends, neighbors, and coworkers
What political leader holds particular sway in shaping American views?
What race and religious group particularly favor the republican party?
The youth of what race are the most politically engaged?
The youth of what race are the most likely to be involved in community activities?
The youth of what race are the most likely to be involved in political protests?
American have varied their political attitudes and beliefs and how they are socialized to politics, depending on the region of the US from which they come, since what event?
The nations founding
What 2 regions are among the most important differences in political outlook in the US?
Northeast and south
Public opinion and _________are inextricably linked because ________is the prism through which people vies all political issues?
What is random sampling?
A scientific method of selection in which each member of the population has an equal chance of being selected.
What type of polls measure change in public opinion over the course of days, weeks and months?
In 1967, what percentage of americans identified the viet nam war as the most important problem facing America.
The publics trust in govt to handle international problems reached a record high after?
What year did the publics trust peak?
What age group of women are less likely to vote then men?
Women are less likely to be attracted to what type of political activism then men?
TEST On what issue do mens and womens opinion differ very little?
What is one strong example of the generational effect on the oldest americans?
What region tends to favor democrats?
What region tend to favor Republians
What region is the most protestant?
What region is the most catholic and jewish?
What region is the largest without religious affilitation?
in what ways is public opinion manifested?
Protesting, blogging, communication with representatives
What has happened to the public trust in the federal govt to handle international and domestic affairs since 2009?
Went up a little
The judicial branch of govt consistently scores______in public trust than the other 2 levels
Trust in the legislative branch declined to ______in 2007
WHat purposes do polls serve?
leaders learn what issues are important ,which policy solutions they prefer, approve if govt is doing their job.
Since 2008 what issue have respondents identified as the most important problem facing the country>
What are organizations called that seek to achieve their goals by influencing govt decision making?
Estimates are that about ___%of all americans belong to some kind of voluntary group.
What did James Madison believe was the only way to cure the mischiefs of faction?
For groups to compete
What do scholars acknowledge that interest groups can be channeled?
Americans have a ______ ______about Interest groups
what criticism do interest groups appear to give the political system>
How can interest groups ensure that laws passed by the legislature and signed by executives are in keeping with current constitutional interpretation?
TEST As a result of the 2010 Supreme Court decision, what type of organizations can bypass PACs and directly purchase federal campaign advertisements?
Corporations and labor unions