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executive departments

Alex Hamilton became the Secretary of Treasury, Thomas jefferson became the Secretary of State, and Henry Knox became the Secretary of War. These made up the first Cabinet. (John Jay served as chief justice)

cabinet

Advisory council for the president consisting of the heads of the executive departments, the vice president, and a few other officials selected by the president.

henry knox

In 1775 George Washington ordered him, the nation's first secretary of war, to bring the British artillery back to the siege of Boston that was captured at Fort Ticonderoga.

edmund randolph

Proposed the Virginia Plan. One of the delegates from Virginia who refused to sign the Constitution.

judiciary act

It created effective federal courts in a hierarchical order. There were city, county, and state courts, along with circuit courts, and the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court was the hightest court in the U.S. The act defined each court's jurisdiction and method of appeal...

federal courts

*** A system of federal courts was established by the Judiciary Act of 1789. The federal courts hear cases that have to do with interstate issues and therefore cannot be handled using state legislature.

supreme court

The pinnacle of the American judicial system. The court ensures uniformity in interpreting national laws, resolves conflicts among states, and maintains national supremacy in law. It has both original jurisdiction and appellate jurisdiction, but unlike other federal courts, it controls its own agenda.

national debt

the amount of money a national government owes to other governments or its people

infant industries

New England, rather than the South, emerged as a manufacturing center because New England had many rivers to supply waterpower, plus a better system of roads and canals; first major industry in New England was textiles

national bank

(1791)"Bank of the United States," part of Hamilton's economic plan that provided a safe storage for government funds, serve as an agent for the gov. in the collection, movement and expenditure of tax money and finance new and expanding business enterprises (speeding up national economic growth). It was partly owned by the government and by investors. It's constitutionality was questioned

french revolution

the revolution that began in 1789, overthrew the absolute monarchy of the Bourbons and the system of aristocratic privileges, and ended with Napoleon's overthrow of the Directory and seizure of power in 1799.

proclamation of neutrality

- A formal announcement issued by President George Washington on April 22, 1793, declaring the United States a neutral nation in the conflict between Great Britain and France that had begun with the French Revolution. It threatened legal proceedings against any American providing assistance to warring countries.

citizen edmond genet

Genet was a French ambassador sent to the Americas in an attempt to enforce the Franco-American alliance and to acquire troops to fight the British and Spanish. He felt that the Neutrality Proclamation was not an accurate representation of the American People. He was eventually forced to resign for his zealousness.
Sig: Shows how the American people were not completely opposed to the Neutrality Proclamation. This was also the definitive sign of the decline of the Franco-American alliance.

jay treaty

A treaty which offered little concessions from Britain to the U.S Jay was able to get Britain to say they would evacuate the chain of posts on U.S. soil and pay damages for recent seizures of American ships. This resulted in a vitalization of the Democratic-Republicans and Pinckney's Treaty with the Spanish.

pinckney treaty

agreement between Spain and the United States, fixing the southern boundary of the United States at 31° N latitude and establishing commercial arrangements favorable to the United States. U.S. citizens were accorded free navigation of the Mississippi River through Spanish territory as well as privilege of a tax-free deposit. This treaty showed that the U.S. was slowly becoming a world player, as they made a treaty with Britain the previous year.

right of deposit

the right of Americans that lived upriver such as the states of Tennessee, Kentucky, and Ohio to travel down the Mississippi River to deposit goods in the port of Louisiana while waiting to load them onto ships; when Spain suspended this right in 1802, it angered the Americans which caused them to want to regain control of New Orleans

battle of fallen timbers

A battle on August 20, 1794, between U.S. forces lead by Gen. Anthony Wayne and Shawnee at Fallen Timbers, south of present day Toledo, Ohio. Wayne routed the Native Americans in a matter of hours. The victory speeded the end of native resistance in the northwest frontier and it underlined the power of the new Federal government. It also permanently ended the power of the British on American soil, when British forces at a nearby fort refused sanctuary to the defeated Shawnee, fearing war with the United States.

whisky rebellion

1791 congress put a tax on all whisky made and sold in u,s, revolt tested strength of government, farmers grew corn to make whisky, refused to pay tax on it, 1794 western pa, farmers rebelled on tax collector by burning down his home, large angry mob marched through Pittsburgh, washington sent 13,000 troops stop rebellion, people ran away when heard the news.

public land act

in 1796 established orderly procedures for dividing and selling federal lands at reasonable prices.

democratic republican party

were led by Thomas Jefferson, believed the people should have political power, favored strong state governments, emphasized agriculture, favored strict interpretation of the constitution, were pro-french, opposed national bank, and opposed protective tariff

political parties

groups of like-minded people who band together in an attempt to take control of government. Parties represent the primary connection between ordinary citizens and the public officials they elect

washington's farewell address

warned against permanent foreign alliance, and political parties,called for unity of the country, established precedent of two-term presidency

permanent alliances

Making a permanent pack with another country that you will support them and they will support you economically and in war, Washington warned against these in his farewell address.

two term tradition

- The two term tradition was created by or originated from George Washington, basically every president would work for two years and then voluntarily resign, even though there were no laws that said that they had to resign at a specific time. This tradition was carried out until the 1940 election of Franklin Roosevelt

john adams

A Massachusetts attorney and politician who was a strong believer in colonial independence. He argued against the Stamp Act and was involved in various patriot groups. As a delegate from Massachusetts, he urged the Second Continental Congress to declare independence. He helped draft and pass the Declaration of Independence. Adams later served as the second President of the United States.

xyz affair

1798 - A commission had been sent to France in 1797 to discuss the disputes that had arisen out of the U.S.'s refusal to honor the Franco-American Treaty of 1778. President Adams had also criticized the French Revolution, so France began to break off relations with the U.S. Adams sent delegates to meet with French foreign minister Talleyrand in the hopes of working things out. Talleyrand's three agents told the American delegates that they could meet with Talleyrand only in exchange for a very large bribe. The Americans did not pay the bribe, and in 1798 Adams made the incident public, substituting the letters "X, Y and Z" for the names of the three French agents in his report to Congress.

alien and sedition acts

the alien act allowed the exportation of any alien believed to be a threat to national security and during times of war; sedition act made it a criminal offense to plot against the government -oppressed people's first amendment rights

kentucky and virginia resolutions

These stated that a state had the right to declare a law unconstiutional, or nullify a law, within its borders. These were written by Jefferson and Madison to resist the Alien and Sedition Acts(1799)

revolution of 1800

Jefferson's view of his election to presidency. Jefferson claimed that the election of 1800 represented a return to what he considered the original spirit of the Revolution. Jefferson's goals for his revolution were to restore the republican experiment, check the growth of government power, and to halt the decay of virtue that had set in under Federalist rule.

thomas jefferson

He was a delegate from Virginia at the Second Continental Congress and wrote the Declaration of Independence. He later served as the third President of the United States.

louisiana purchase

The U.S., under Jefferson, bought the Louisiana territory from France, under the rule of Napoleon, in 1803. The U.S. paid $15 million for the Louisiana Purchase, and Napoleon gave up his empire in North America. The U.S. gained control of Mississippi trade route and doubled its size.

napoleon bonaparte

general; Emperor of France; he seized power in a coup d'état in 1799; he led French armies in conquering much of Europe, placing his relatives in positions of power. Defeated at the Battle of Waterloo, he was exiled on the island of Elba

strict interpretation of constitution

Fewer national laws could be passed because only laws about things specifically mentioned in the Constitution could be created. This is supposed to limit the power of national government.

lewis and clark expedition

1804-1806 - Meriwether Lewis and William Clark were commissioned by Jefferson to map and explore the Louisiana Purchase region. Beginning at St. Louis, Missouri, the expedition travelled up the Missouri River to the Great Divide, and then down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean. It produced extensive maps of the area and recorded many scientific discoveries, greatly facilitating later settlement of the region and travel to the Pacific coast.

john marshall

He served in the Continental Army during the Revolution. In the 1790s he had embraced the Federalist Party. Marshall tossed the Republicans a few crumbs by ruling that the Supreme Court could not compel Madison to deliver Marbury's commission. Then he argued that the Court could not issue a writ of mandamus in its original jurisdiction. The 1st time the court had declared an act of Congress unconstitutional.

judicial review

The power of a court to refuse to enforce a law or a government regulation that in the opinion of the judges conflicts with the U.S. Constitution or, in a state court, the state constitution.

marbury v. madison

The 1803 case in which Chief Justice John Marshall and his associates first asserted the right of the Supreme Court to determine the meaning of the U.S. Constitution. The decision established the Court's power of judicial review over acts of Congress, (the Judiciary Act of 1789).

Aaron burr

Aaron Burr was one of the leading Democratic-Republicans of New york, and served as a U.S. Senator from New York from 1791-1797. He was the principal opponent of Alexander Hamilton's Federalist policies. In the election of 1800, Burr tied with Jefferson in the Electoral College. The House of Representatives awarded the Presidency to Jefferson and made Burr Vice- President.

Quids

Republicans who criticized the War of 1812 (even though it was started by a Republican president) because it did not follow the traditional Republican idea of limited federal government.

barbary pirates

Plundering pirates off the Mediterranean coast of Africa; President Thomas Jefferson's refusal to pay them tribute to protect American ships sparked an undeclared naval war with North African nations

nutrality

the idea of being nuetral not picking a side

impressment

British seamen often deserted to join the American merchant marines. The British would board American vessels in order to retrieve the deserters, and often seized any sailor who could not prove that he was an American citizen and not British.

Chesapeake leopard affair

a naval fight between england and the US on the issue of impressment where shots were fired but the US gov. was really slow to respond

embargo act 1807

The Embargo Act was a series of laws passed by the Congress of the United States between the years 1806-1808, during the second term of President Thomas Jefferson that forbade American trading ships from leaving the U.S., was meant to force Britain and France to change their policies towards neutral vessels by depriving them of American trade; difficult to enforce because it was opposed by merchants and everyone else whose livelihood depended upon international trade, hurt the national economy, so the Non-Intercourse Act replaced it. It was designed to force Britain to rescind its restrictions on American trade, but failed, and was repealed in early 1809.

james madison

The fourth President of the United States (1809-1817). A member of the Continental Congress (1780-1783) and the Constitutional Convention (1787), he strongly supported ratification of the Constitution and was a contributor to The Federalist Papers (1787-1788), which argued the effectiveness of the proposed constitution. His presidency was marked by the War of 1812.

william henry harrison

was an American military leader, politician, the ninth President of the United States, and the first President to die in office. His death created a brief constitutional crisis, but ultimately resolved many questions about presidential succession left unanswered by the Constitution until passage of the 25th Amendment. Led US forces in the Battle of Tippecanoe.

Battle of tippecanoe

Battle between Americans and Native Americans. Tecumseh and the Prophet attempted to oppress white settlement in the West, but defeated by William Henry Harrison. Led to talk of Canadian invasion and served as a cause to the War of 1812.

war hawks

Western settlers who advocated war with Britain because they hoped to aquire Britain's northwest posts (and also Florida or even Canada) and because they felt the British were aiding the Indians and encouraging them to attack the Americans on the frontier. In Congress, the War Hawks were Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun.

henry clay

Senator who persuaded Congress to accept the Missouri Compromise, which admitted Maine into the Union as a free state, and Missouri as a slave state

john c calhoun

(1830s-40s) Leader of the Fugitive Slave Law, which forced the cooperation of Northern states in returning escaped slaves to the south. He also argued on the floor of the senate that slavery was needed in the south. He argued on the grounds that society is supposed to have an upper ruling class that enjoys the profit of a working lower class.

war of 1812

War between the U.S. and Great Britain which lasted until 1814, ending with the Treaty of Ghent and a renewed sense of American nationalism

Battle of lake erie

Battle where a Naval force led by Oliver Hazard Perry defeated the British and secured Lake Erie

oliver hazard perry

"We have me the enemy, and they are ours." Naval hero during the War of 1812. Won battle on Lake Erie against the British. After the battle, he sent William Henry Harrison a note that said this famous quote.

battle of thames river

A decisive American victory in the War of 1812. It resulted in the death of the Shawnee chief Tecumseh, and the destruction of the Native American confederacy which he led.

thomas macdonough

a commander of an American fleet on Lake Champlain that fought near Plattsburgh on floating slaughterhouses; the Americans were nearly defeated, but his nifty techniques forced the British to retreat; this heroic naval battle saved New York from conquest, New England from disaffection, and the Union from dissolution

battle of lake champlain

A battle where the British fleet was defeated and was forced to retreat and to abandon their plans to invade New York and New England after being stoped by Thomas Macdonough. The British began to decide that the war was to costly.

francis scott key

wrote poem "Star Spangled Banner" while watching Fort McHerny being bombed September 1814 . Became the National Anthem in 1931

andrew jackson

The seventh President of the United States (1829-1837), who as a general in the War of 1812 defeated the British at New Orleans (1815). As president he opposed the Bank of America, objected to the right of individual states to nullify disagreeable federal laws, and increased the presidential powers.

battle of horseshoe bend

fought during the War of 1812 in central Alabama. On March 27, 1814, United States forces and Indian allies under General Andrew Jackson defeated the Red Sticks, a part of the Creek Indian tribe inspired by the Shawnee leader Tecumseh, effectively ending the Creek War.

creek nation

The Creek are an American Indian people originally from the southeastern United States, also known by their original name Muscogee (or Muskogee), the name they use to identify themselves today. Mvskoke is their name in traditional spelling. Modern Muscogees live primarily in Oklahoma, Alabama, Georgia, and Florida. Their language, Mvskoke, is a member of the Creek branch of the Muskogean language family. The Seminole are close kin to the Muscogee and speak a Creek language as well. The Creeks are one of the Five Civilized Tribes. Important British ally that had power in the South, specifically Georgia. The Creek was a mix of Indian tribes found east of the Mississippi River.

battle of new orleans

Jackson led a battle that occurred when British troops attacked U.S. soldiers in New Orleans on January 8, 1815; the War of 1812 had officially ended with the signing of the Treaty of Ghent in December, 1814, but word had not yet reached the U.S.

hartford convention

Meeting of Federalists near the end of the War of 1812 in which the party listed it's complaints against the ruling Republican Party. These actions were largley viewed as traitorous to the country and lost the Federalist much influence

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