the period between the fall of the Roman Empire in the west (470) and the beginning of the European Renaissance in the 1400s. This period is also known as "Medieval."
An economic system based on the manor and lands including a village and surrounding acreage which were administered by a lord. It developed during the Middle Ages to increase agricultural production.
Heavy plow introduced in northern Europe during the Middle Ages; permitted deeper cultivation of heavier soils; a technological innovation of the medieval agricultural system.
a system of planting in which one third of the land was left unplanted each year to regain fertility
king of the Franks who unified Gaul and established his capital at Paris and founded the Frankish monarchy
the family that ruled the Franks in Gaul from 751 to 987 in the Carolingian Dynasty. This began when Pepin was declared king. They lost power after the Treaty of Verdun.
Carolingian monarch of Franks; responsible for defeating Muslims in battle of Tours in 732; ended Muslim threat to western Europe.
King of the Franks (r. 768-814); emperor (r. 800-814). Through a series of military conquests he established the Carolingian Empire, which encompassed all of Gaul and parts of Germany and Italy. Illiterate, though started an intellectual revival. Also known as charles the great, he was crowned holy roman emperor by the pope.
holy roman emperors
Emperors in Northern Italy and Germany, following split of Charlemagne's empire, claimed title of emperor blending religious and classical ideads. They however failed to develop affective monarchies in Germany.
A political system in which nobles are granted the use of lands that legally belong to their king, in exchange for their loyalty, military service, and protection of the people who live on the land
lesser lords who pledged their service and loyalty to a greater lord in a military capacity
william the conquerer
Invaded England from Normandy in 1066; extended tight feudal system to England; established administrative system based on sheriffs; established centralized monarchy.
This document, signed by King John of Endland in 1215, is the cornerstone of English justice and law. It declared that the king and government were bound by the same laws as other citizens of England. It contained the antecedents of the ideas of due process and the right to a fair and speedy trial that are included in the protection offered by the U.S. Bill of Rights
bodies representing privileged groups; institutionalized feudal principle that rulers should consult with their vassals; found in England, Spain, Germany, and France.
key three estates
Church, nobles, and urban leaders; replaced by parliaments in Western Europe late in the 13th century.
hundred years' war
(1337-1453) Series of campaigns over control of the throne of France, involving English and French royal families and French noble families.
pope urban II
Leader of the Roman Catholic Church who asked European Christians to take up arms against Muslims, starting the Crusades
st. clare of assissi
saint who created a new womans franciscan order, heavily influenced by the ideals of monasticism
pope gregory VII
fought lay investiture by issuing a decree forbidding high-ranking clerics from receiving their investiture from lay leaders. Excommunicated Emperor Henry IV.
The appointment of bishops and abbots by secular rulers, often in exchange for temporal protection.
Author of Yes And No; university scholar who applied logic to problems of theology; demonstrated logical contradictions within established doctrine.
bernard of clairvaux
Emphasized role of faith in preference to logic; stressed importance of mystical union with God; successfully challenged Peter Abelard and had him driven from the universities.
Italian theologian and Doctor of the Church who is remembered for his attempt to reconcile faith and reason in a comprehensive theology, taught at the University of Paris
A philosophical and theological system, associated with Thomas Aquinas, devised to reconcile Aristotelian philosophy and Roman Catholic theology in the thirteenth century.
a style of architecture developed in northern France that spread throughout Europe between the 12th and 16th centuries, characterized by slender vertical piers and counterbalancing buttresses and by vaulting and pointed arches
An economic and defensive alliance of the free towns in northern Germany, founded about 1241 and most powerful in the fourteenth century.
business associations that dominated medieval towns; they passed laws, levied taxes, built protective walls for the city, etc. Each guild represented workers in one occupation such as weavers, bakers, brewers, sword makers, etc.
the epidemic form of bubonic plague experienced during the Middle Ages when it killed nearly half the people of western Europe. The first epidemic began in 1348.