← apush vocab 13-15 Export Options Alphabetize Word-Def Delimiter Tab Comma Custom Def-Word Delimiter New Line Semicolon Custom Data Copy and paste the text below. It is read-only. Select All jacksonian democracy The concept of Jacksonian Democracy glorified the equality of all adult white males--the common man. It disliked anything that smacked of special privilege. It rejected the elitist view that only the proven "best" men should be chosen to manage public affairs, decentralization of power, rotation in office, common men in government. corrupt bargain In the election of 1824, none of the candidates were able to secure a majority of the electoral vote, thereby putting the outcome in the hands of the House of Representatives, which elected John Quincy Adams over rival Andrew Jackson. Henry Clay was the Speaker of the House at the time, and he convinced Congress to elect Adams. Adams then made Clay his Secretary of State. henry clay Distinguished senator from Kentucky, who ran for president five times until his death in 1852. He was a strong supporter of the American System, a war hawk for the War of 1812, Speaker of the House of Representatives, and known as "The Great Compromiser." Outlined the Compromise of 1850 with five main points. Died before it was passed however. john quincy adams He was the son of formal president John Adams and became president himself in the corrupt election of 1824. He was the first minority president and due to this was not liked by many and subjected him to many hostilities leaving it near impossible for him to accomplish much as president. Quincy's election was said to have been accomplished by an agreement with Clay to make him ST. This form of corruption plagued the country in its early days, but an effort was made to end it when Jackson was elected in a landslide during the 1828 election twelfth amendment Beginning in 1804, electors would vote separately for President and Vice President sectionalism loyalty to one's own region of the country, rather than to the nation as a whole national republicans Part of the Democratic - Republican party joined John Q. Adams, Clay, and Daniel Webster to oppose Andrew Jackson. They favored strong central government and nationalistic measures like recharter of the Bank of the United States, high tariffs, and internal improvements at national expense. Supporters: Northwesterners, farmers, merchants, separation of republicans. common man jefferson and jackson supported these people, lower classes. nationalism a strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country old hickory Nickname given to president Andrew Jackson, 7th president, 1829-1837, for his toughness. Jackson was a veteran of the Creek War, and a hero of the battle of New Orleans during the War of 1812. He also had fought and won a number of duels. spoils system practice of rewarding supporters with government jobs kitchen cabinet Jackson's group of unofficial advisors consisting of newspaper editors and Democratic leaders that met to discuss current issues. Jackson used the Kitchen Cabinet more than his official Cabinet. daniel webster whig party leader, best-known American orator, and one of the ablest lawyers and statesmen of his time, gained his greatest fame as the champion of a strong national government, secretary of state, opposed jackson, federal reserve system. tariff of abominations tariff of 1828, The bill favored western agricultural interests by raising tariffs or import taxes on imported hemp, wool, fur, flax, and liquor, thus favoring Northern manufacturers. In the South, these tariffs raised the cost of manufactured goods, thus angering them and causing more sectionalist feelings. john c calhoun South Carolina Senator - advocate for state's rights, limited government, and nullification, Leader of the Fugitive Slave Law, which forced the cooperation of Northern states in returning escaped slaves to the south. He also argued on the floor of the senate that slavery was needed in the south. He argued on the grounds that society is supposed to have an upper ruling class that enjoys the profit of a working lower class. south carolina exposition and protest In 1828 Calhoun anonymously wrote this widely circulated book which he spelled out his argument that the tariff of 1828 was unconstitutional and that aggrieved states therefore had the right to nullify the law within their borders. denmark vesey A mulatto who inspired a group of slaves to seize Charleston, South Carolina in 1822, but one of them betrayed him and he and his thirty-seven followers were hanged before the revolt started, led to stricter slave codes. tariff of 1832 The Tariff of 1832 was a protectionist tariff in the United States. It was passed as a reduced tariff to remedy the conflict created by the tariff of 1828, but it was still deemed unsatisfactory by southerners and other groups hurt by high tariff rates. Southern opposition to this tariff and its predecessor, the Tariff of Abominations, caused the Nullification Crisis involving South Carolina. The tariff was later lowered down to 35 percent, a reduction of 10 percent, to pacify these objections. force bill 1833 - The Force Bill authorized President Jackson to use the army and navy to collect duties on the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. South Carolina's ordinance of nullification had declared these tariffs null and void, and South Carolina would not collect duties on them. The Force Act was never invoked because it was passed by Congress the same day as the Compromise Tariff of 1833, so it became unnecessary. South Carolina also nullified the Force Act, "bloody bill" nullification crisis South was mad about the Tariff of Abominations. John C. Calhoun supported States' Rights and said they had a right to nullify a federal law, In 1832 the tariff was lowered. South Carolina passed the Nullification Act, and threatened to secede; Jackson was furious, so he passed the Force Bill which said that Jackson can use the army to enforce the tariff, south accepts the compromise tariff of 1833, and nullify the force act cherokees one of the five civillized Indian tribes pushed west during the Indian Removal/trail of tears; had never had any major conflict with the American government; some had even attended law school; also, had their own alphabet and published newspapers, have their own constitution, georgia five civilized tribes Cherokees, Choctaws, Creeks, Chickasaws, and Seminoles; "civilized" due to their intermarriage with whites and adopted many of their customs, forced out of their homelands by expansion, farming societies, hardest hit by indian removal act indian removal act Passed in 1830, authorized Andrew Jackson to negotiate land-exchange treaties with tribes living east of the Mississippi. The treaties enacted under this act's provisions paved the way for the reluctant—and often forcible—emigration of tens of thousands of American Indians to the West/trail of tears, south wanted indian land so kicks indians out, westward expansion bureau of indian affairs managed indian removal to western lands (reservations), indian new deal, federal relations with migrated indians, Responsible for distributing land and adequate supplies to anyone willing to farm as well as maintaining peaceful between the reservation and its neighbors. A school and other communal buildings were promised by the treaty. black hawk Sauk leader of the Illinois tribes of Indians in the 1830's. When the Indians were uprooted, and forced out of their homes, he led the Indians in resisting the move. However, he wasn't powerful enough, because in 1832 they were brutally defeated, and forced to move into Oklahoma. seminole war Conflict that began in Florida in 1817 when the Seminoles resisted removal., A seven year conflict in Florida between the Seminole Indians, their allied escaped slaves, and American troops. The Seminoles were defeated and moved to Oklahoma. trail of tears The Cherokee Indians were forced to leave their lands. They traveled from North Carolina and Georgia through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas-more than 800 miles (1,287 km)-to the Indian Territory. More than 4,000 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food during the 116-day journey, indian removal act, andrew jackson 2nd bus vetoed by Jackson, he deposited the money into pet banks, chartered in 1816 out of desperation to stabilize the currency by Madison. depository for Federal funds until 1833, nicholas biddle czar nicholas biddle President of the Second Bank of the United States; he struggled to keep the bank functioning when President Jackson tried to destroy it. also known for his bribes. He was in charge during the bank war, where Jackson refused to deposit federal funds, which bled the bank dry. He also showed the corruption of the bank, held too much power (unconstitutional) over national funds. bank war Jackson vs. Bank & Biddle; Jackson begins taking out funds and putting them into pet banks, successfully "killing" the bank; leads to fluctuation in economy and eventual panic, Jackson believed the Bank of US had too much power and was too rich. Vetoed the 2nd Bank charter and withdrew gov't money from the US Banks and put it into "pet banks" rotation of office Jackson's belief that all federal employers serve only "one term" in office, Jackson forced out 10% of old government worker. aka spoils system, brought more of the common people into office anti-masonic party (1832) - 1st third party in the presidential elections - against the Mason order of which Andrew Jackson was a part of - anti-Jackson pet banks small state banks set up by Jackson to keep federal funds out of the National Bank, used until funds were consolidated into a single treasury, used to kill 2nd BUS specie circular issued by President Jackson July 11, 1836, was meant to stop land speculation caused by states printing paper money without proper specie (gold or silver) backing it. It required that the purchase of public lands be paid for in specie. It stopped the land speculation and the sale of public lands went down sharply. The panic of 1837 followed. king andrew I whigs/Critics of Andrew Jackson called him this because of his spoils system and commanding ways, used veto often, abusive of political power, His supporters, "supporters of the king", were Tories and his enemies were the Whigs whig party An American political party formed in the 1830s to oppose President Andrew Jackson and the Democrats, stood for protective tariffs, national banking, and federal aid for internal improvements, also appealed to common people, their creation signified the end of one party rule, weak president, strong congress, weak executive/president, strong congress internal improvements The program for building roads, canals, bridges, and railroads in and between the states. There was a dispute over whether the federal government should fund internal improvements, since it was not specifically given that power by the Constitution, henry clay, american system, wanted them funded off of tariffs, whigs american system an economic regime pioneered by Henry Clay which created a high tariff to support internal improvements such as road-building. This approach was intended to allow the United States to grow and prosper by themselves (not dependent on europe) This would eventually help America industrialize and become an economic power. whigs. martin van buren senator, vice president, and 8th president of the United States; the Panic of 1837 ruined his presidency, depression, divorce bill, jackson's shadow, he was voted out of office and taken over by whigs in 1840. He later supported the Free Soil Party, wizard of albany, little magician election of 1836 The Whigs tried to eat the Democrats' national organization with an array of sectional candidates, hoping to throw the election into the House of Representatives could not agree on a single one, The strategy failed. Martin Van Buren, with significant support in every section of the country, defeated the three Whig candidates combined. buren blamed for depression caused by jackson, panic of 1837, disliked panic of 1837 When Jackson was president, many state banks received government money that had been withdrawn from the Bank of the U.S. These banks issued paper money and financed wild speculation, especially in federal lands. Jackson issued the Specie Circular to force the payment for federal lands with gold or silver. Many state banks collapsed as a result. A panic ensued (1837). Bank of the U.S. failed, cotton prices fell, businesses went bankrupt, and there was widespread unemployment and distress - , Ecnomic downturn caused by loose lending practices of stat banks' and overspeculation. Martin Van Buren spent most of his time in office attempting to stablize and lessen the economic situation independent treasury Martin Van Buren passed the "Divorce Bill" in 1840 which created this that took the government's funds out of the pet banks that Jackson created and put them in vaults in several of the largest cities. This way the funds would be safe from inflation. stephen austin Original settler of Texas, granted land from Mexico on condition of no slaves, convert to Roman Catholic, and learn Spanish, and bring 300 families to texas, Austin, Texas was named after him; he was the man the brought the first Americans into Texas because he was granted permission by the Mexicans. Leader of Texas settlers in 1820 sam houston United States politician and military leader who fought to gain independence for Texas from Mexico and to make it a part of the United States (1793-1863), First president of the Republic of Texas, lone star republic texas revolution The 1836 rebellion in which Texas gained its independence from Mexico. It later joined the United States, lone star republic, , Rebellions that erupted after the Mexican President, Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, revoked local powers to Texas and other Mexican States, authoritarian, some tejanos and american settlers allied alamo Spanish mission converted into fort, besieged by Mexican troops in 1836; Texas garrison held out for 13 days; in final battle, larger Mexican force led by Santa Anna killed almost all Texans, "remember the alamo" used for revolutionaries, encouraged other americans to come help texas cause relatives killed tejanos the Mexican residents of Texas who had fought with the Americans in the revolution, but after Texas won independence, many Americans feared that they were Mexican spies, and drove the many out, those that remained were given a political and economic subordinate status. some helped american texans win independence from mexico. election of 1840 Whigs united under William Henry Harrison, the one Whig candidate who had won national support 4 years earlier. Borrowing campaign tactics from the Democrats and inventing many of their own, Whigs campaigned hard in every state. The result was a Whig victory and a truly national two-party system. hard cider and log cabin irony. democrats Political party lead by Andrew Jackson from 1828 to 1856. Campaigned against strong central government and fought to end elitism, were frontier farmers and factory workers, individual liberty, common people, hostility to privilege. fur trade where crops weren't able to grow well in the north, fur trade was a large part of there economy; not only would colonists hunt for furs, they would also trade with the Natives to get furs, , reason why French and Netherlands explorers came to America, , Florished from the 1670s to the 1840s spurred exploration of the North American continent, mountain men trapped the furs and often married with Indian women. Famous Trapper: Jedediah Smith old immigrants Western/northern europe immigrants who had come to the US before the 1880s from Britain, Germany, Ireland, and Scandenavia. They were meaner to new immigrants nativism the belief that native-born Americans are superior to immigrants/foreigners know nothing party american party, order of the star-spangled banner, secret nativist political party, anti-immigration/foreign and anti-catholic industrial revolution The transformation of the economy, the environment, and living conditions, occurring first in England in the eighteenth century, that resulted from the use of steam engines, the mechanization of manufacturing in factories, transit, and communications - , the transformation from an agricultural to an industrial nation samuel slater He memorized the way that the British made machines and he brought the idea to America. He made our first cotton spinning textile machine. father of the factory system. mechanization the process of replacing animal and human power with machine power to increase production eli whitney an American inventor who developed the cotton gin, saved south, but higher demand for slaves. Also contributed to the concept of interchangeable parts that were exactly alike and easily assembled or exchanged cotton gin a machine for cleaning the seeds from cotton fibers, invented by Eli Whitney in 1793, good for south, but south then needed more slaves, industrial revolution/mechanization interchangeable parts process developed by Eli Whitney in the 1790s that called for making each vital part of a machine exactly the same, makes industrial revolution/mechanization easier limited liability the legal provision that shields owners of a corporation from losing more than they have invested in the firm samuel f.b. morse invented telegraph and morse code commonwealth v. hunt Legalized Labor Unions, supreme court ruled workers could strike, have unions, etc. wage slavery A situation where a slave is fully dependent on the wages earned for their livelihood, especially if the dependency is total and immediate, had to work to survive, fail wages lowell mills textile mills in the village that employed farm girls who lived in company owned boarding houses, girls needed to be escorted places, bad conditions and wages cult of domesticity Idealization of women and the home and children sphere john deere invented the steel plow, made farming in the west possible mccormick reaper machine had the ability to cut wheat quickly, john mccormick turnpikes Privately built roads that charged a fee to travelers who used them or couldn't pass, lancaster turnpike, private groups wanted to make money conestoga wagons Built by Germans immigrants to carry produce to town, used wide wheels, curved beds, canvas covers cumberland road also national road, A national road that stretched from Maryland to Illinois. It was the first national/interstate highway, paid with federal funds, and it was a milestone for the eventual connection of all the states by highways, thus increasing trade. north connected to west. robert fulton American inventor who designed the first commercially successful steamboat and the first steam warship (1765-1815) steamboats Boomed in the 1820's. Was able to carry bulk commodities cheaper than covered wagons on the National Road. Its use opened up nearly half the U.S. to water transportation, robert fulton erie canal A canal between the New York cities of Albany and Buffalo, completed in 1825. The canal, considered a marvel of the modern world at the time, allowed western farmers to ship surplus crops to sell in the North and allowed northern manufacturers to ship finished goods to sell in the West. hudson river and lake eerie, new york's governor DeWitt Clinton continental economy principle division of labor- productivity and profits in each region. south: raised cotton to export to new england and britain; west grew grain and livestock to feed factory workers out east and europe, east made machines and textiles for south and west, alexander hamilton's vision iron horse train/locomotive clipper ships American boats, built during the 1840's in Boston, that were sleek and fast but inefficient in carrying a lot of cargo or passengers. pony express Carried mail speedily the two-thousand lonely miles from St. Joseph, Missouri to Sacramento, California. Daring, lightweight riders, leaping onto wiry ponies saddled at stations approximately ten miles apart, could make the trip in an amazing ten days through various hardships such as weather and attackers. market revolution the major change in the U.S. economy produced by people's beginning to buy and sell good rather than make them for themselves, The outcome of three interrelated developments: rapid improvemnts in transportation, commercialization, and industrialization religious revivals occured in the great awakenings unitarianism belief that God existed in only one person (hence unitarian), and not in the orthodox Trinity; denied the divinity of Jesus; stressed the essential goodness of human nature rather than its vileness; believed in free will and the possibility of salvation through good works; God as a loving father rather than stern Creator; followed by Ralph Waldo Emerson; appealed to intellectuals whose rationalism and optimism naturally made them not support the hellfire doctrines of Calvinism (especially predestination and human depravity) second great awakening A series of religious revivals starting in 1801, based on Methodism and Baptism. Stressed a religious philosophy of salvation through good deeds and tolerance for all Protestant sects. The revivals attracted women, Blacks, and Native Americans. It converted more than the first. It also had an effect on moral movements such as prison reform, the temperance movement, and moral reasoning against slavery. utopian/religious sects like the Shakers, Mormons, Millerites charles g finney leader in 2nd great awakening, This Presbyterian minister appealed to his audience's sense of emotion rather than their reason. His "fire and brimstone" sermons became commonplace in upstate New York, where listeners were instilled with the fear of Satan and an eternity in Hell. He insisted that parishioners could save themselves through good works and a steadfast faith in God. This region of New York became known as the "burned-over district," because this minister preached of the dangers of eternal damnation across the countryside oberlin college First integrated and co-educational college (Blacks + Women could go there) joseph smith Religious leader who founded the Mormon Church in 1830. He formed the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Had golden plates given to him by an angel and practiced polygamy. latter-day saints Belonged to the Church of Jesus Christ and were morman. Founded by Joseph Smith in 1830 brigham young A Mormon leader that led his oppressed followers to Utah in 1846. Under Young's management, his Mormon community became a prosperous frontier theocracy and a cooperative commonwealth. He became the territorial governor in 1850. Unable to control the hierarchy of Young, Washington sent a federal army in 1857 against the harassing Mormons. public education school paid for by the government, workers wanted it for their children, was narrow minded, teachers were ill paid and grumpy, terms were short, but all gradually improved, needed to educate the next generation, "cannot be ignorant and free", improved by horace mann horace mann as secretary to the Massachusetts Board of Education, he campaigned for better public schools, longer school terms and expanded curriculums - set standard for the nation noah webster American writer who wrote textbooks to help the advancement of education. He also wrote a dictionary which helped standardize the American language. mcguffey (1800-1873) teacher/preacher. He published grade school readers/textbooks in the 1830's the "McGuffey readers" that taught lessons in morality, patriotism and idealism. emma willard Early supporter of women's education, in 1818. She published Plan for Improving Education, which became the basis for public education of women in New York. 1821, she opened her own girls' school, the Troy Female Seminary, designed to prepare women for college. ralph waldo emerson Unitarian writer who turned to what would come to be called "Transcendentalism". "The American Scholar", his most famous speech, advocated that America find its "own voice", American transcendentalist who was against slavery and stressed self-reliance, optimism, self-improvement, self-confidence, and freedom. He was a prime example of a transcendentalist and helped further the movement. was part of the lyceum lecture associations. lyceum lecture associations traveling lecturers spoke to masses of adults, and by 1835, the number of associations reached to three thousand people. speakers spoke on topics of science, literature, and moral philosphy, and journeyed thousands of miles to speak on civilization to adults who supported the topic; Ralph Waldo Emerson was a member of these associations. dorothea dix Worked to improve the treatment of the mentally ill. At the outbreak of the Civil War, she was appointed superintendent of women nurses for the Union forces. She was a teacher and an author. neal s. dow against alochol; "father of prohibition", maine law, temperance maine law 1851; sponsored by Neal S. Dow; hailed as "the law of Heaven Americanized" prohibited the sale and manufacture of intoxicating liquor, temperance temperance movement An organized campaign to eliminate alcohol consumption. women's suffrage movement women's fight for equal rights to men, right to vote, overrode by the antislavery movement lucretia mott Quaker activist in both the abolitionist and women's movements; with Elizabeth Cady Stanton, she was a principal organizer of the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848. elizabeth cady stanton A member of the women's right's movement in 1840. She was a mother of seven, and she shocked other feminists by advocating suffrage for women at the first Women's Right's Convention in Seneca, New York 1848. Stanton read a "Declaration of Sentiments" which declared "all men and women are created equal." susan b anthony social reformer who campaigned for womens rights, the temperance, and was an abolitionist, helped form the National Woman Suffrage Assosiation elizabeth blackwell First woman to receive a medical degree in the U.S. grimke sisters Angelina and Sarah Grimke wrote and lectured vigorously on reform causes such as prison reform, the temperance movement, and the abolitionist movement. seneca falls convention Took place in upperstate New York in 1848. Women of all ages and even some men went to discuss the rights and conditions of women. There, they wrote the Declaration of Sentiments, which among other things, tried to get women the right to vote. Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony declaration of sentiments Revision of the Declaration of Independence to include women and men (equal). It was the grand basis of attaining civil, social, political, and religious rights for women.Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, seneca falls convention robert owen utopian socialist, believed that humans would show their true natural goodness if they lived in a cooperative enviroment, new harmony, community, mill owner, child labor laws oneida community It was founded by John Humphrey Noyes. It was a group of socio-religious perfectionists who lived in New York. They practiced polygamy, communal property and communal raising of children. (Utopian society), wanted to be a perfect christian community, fianced themselves using steel plates and sewing, later became a joint stock company john audubon French-American naturalist who was known for his paintings of wild birds in their natural surroundings, best known for his work Birds of America. Audubon society. university of virginia One of the earliest state-supported universities, founded in 1819; founded by Thomas Jefferson, who designed its architecture and separated it from religion and politics; focused on modern languages and the sciences. classic archituecture. hudson river school American painters of portraits turned increasingly from human landscapes to romantic mirrorings of local landscapes. School during transcendentalism. Thomas cole. minstrel shows When white actors wearing blackface mimicked (and ridiculed) African American culture, became increasingly popular. james fenimore cooper American novelist who is best remembered for his novels indians and of frontier life, such as The Last of the Mohicans (1826). american themes (along with washington irving), showed nationalism. transcendentalism A philosophy pioneered by Ralph Waldo Emerson in the 1830's and 1840's, in which each person has direct communication with God and Nature, and there is no need for organized churches. It incorporated the ideas that mind goes beyond matter, intuition is valuable, that each soul is part of the Great Spirit, and each person is part of a reality where only the invisible is truly real. Promoted individualism, self-reliance, and freedom from social constraints, and emphasized emotions, henry david thoreau henry david thoreau American transcendentalist who was against a government that supported slavery. He wrote down his beliefs in Walden. He started the movement of civil-disobedience when he refused to pay the toll-tax to support him Mexican War. walt whitman American poet and transcendentalist who was famous for his beliefs on nature, as demonstrated in his book, Leaves of Grass. He was therefore an important part for the buildup of American literature and breaking the traditional rhyme method in writing poetry. louisa may alcott Novelist whose tales of family life helped economically support her own struggling transcendentalist family, little women edgar allen poe (1809-1849). Orphaned at young age. Was an American poet, short-story writer, editor and literary critic, and is considered part of the American Romantic Movement. Best known for his tales of mystery and the macabre. Failing at suicide, began drinking. Died in Baltimore shortly after being found drunk in a gutter. stories did not appeal to americans because they were dark when america was optimistic and nationalistic. nathaniel hawthorne Originally a transcendentalist; later rejected them and became a leading anti-transcendentalist. He was a descendant of Puritan settlers. The Scarlet Letter shows the hypocrisy and insensitivity of New England puritans by showing their cruelty to a woman who has committed adultery and is forced to wear a scarlet "A". literature dark and not american optimistic and nationalistic. herman melville American writer whose experiences at sea provided the factual basis of Moby-Dick (1851), considered among the greatest American novels. allegory, too educated for americans. recognized later.