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Lesson 1:The Endocrine System Lesson 2: Part 2 - The Endocrine System Lesson 3: Blood Lesson 4: Cardiovascular System: The Heart Lesson 5: Cardiovascular System: The Blood Vessels Lesson 6: The Lymphatic System Lesson 7: The Immune System

FSH

A hormone that regulates gamete production.

Hormones

Steroids or amino acid-based molecules released into the blood, which arouse tissues.

Testes

These produce testosterone.

TH

Its primary function is to control the rate of body meta- bolism and cellular oxidation.

Pancreas

Synthesize insulin.

Pituitary Gland

Consists of two functional areas: the adenohypophysis and the neurohypophysis.

Adrenal Medulla

Controlled by the sympathetic nervous system and release epinephrine and norepinephrine.

ACTH

Regulates the endocrine activity of the cortex portion of the adrenal gland.

Prolactin

One of the hormones that stimulates breast develop- ment and promotes and maintains lactation after child- birth.

Glucocorticoid

A hormone produced in the adrenal cortex that enables the body to resist long term stress.

Gluconeogenesis occurs in the liver due to the action of:

Cortisol

Virtually all of the protein or amino acid-based hormones exert their effects through intracellular:

Second messengers

Oxytocin

Release is an example of a positive feedback control mechanism

Sometimes prolonged excessive exposure to high hormone concentrations causes a phenomenon known as:

Down-regulation

The neurohypophysis or posterior lobe of the pituitary gland is not a true endocrine gland because:

It is only a hormone storage area that receives hormones from the hypothalamus for release

Steroid hormones exert their action by:

Entering the nucleus of a cell and initiating or altering the expression of a gene

The second-messenger mechanism of hormone action operates by:

Binding to specific receptors and employing the services of G proteins and cAMP

Thyroid hormone (a small iodinated amine) enters target cells in a manner similar to:

Steroid hormones, because both diffuse easily in to target cells

The major targets of growth hormone are:

Bones and skeletal muscles

Which organ is responsible for synthesizing ANP?

The heart

Mineralocorticoid is to aldosterone as glucocorticoid is to:

Cortisol

The most important regulator of electrolyte concentrations in extracellular fluids is:

Aldosterone

Name 3 second messengers

Cyclic AMP, Cyclic GMP, and Inositol triphosphate

An amino acid derivative can be a ___.

hormone

In circumstances where the body requires prolonged or increased levels of a hormone, the DNA of target cells will specify the synthesis of more receptors on the surface of the cells of the target organ. This is known as:

Up-regulation

Which of the following organs is affected by thyroid hormone?

Liver

Thyroxine does not require __ to effect a response.

It does not require a second messenger to effect a response

Glucocorticoids enable the body to deal appropriately with stress. They accomplish this by:

Increasing blood glucose, fatty acid, and amino acid levels and enhancing blood pressure

What ion is sometimes used as a second messenger of amino acid-base hormones?

Calcium

Catecholamines and/or peptide hormones bind to receptors on the surface of cells that comprise target organs. This binding causes:

Adenylate cyclase to generate cyclic AMP from ATP.

Which test is used when anemia is suspected?

Hematocrit

Platelets are fragments of large multinucleated cells known as ________________.

Megakaryocytes

The major group of leukocytes that contain no observable cytoplasmic granules and are more abundant in lymphoid tissue and lymph.

Agranulocytes

An insoluable compound that forms a meshwork of strands that trap RBC's and is, therefore, considered the structural basis of clot formation.

Fibrin

Another name for the proteins in plasma known as agglutinins.

Antibodies

The ability of leukocytes to move in and out of blood vessels in order to reach sites of inflammation or tissue destruction.

Diapedesis

Nucleated cells that are formed in the bone marrow whose numbers average from 4,000 to 11,000 per uL of blood.

Leukocytes

Anucleocyte (without a nucleus) cells, when mature, whose numbers average 4.5 to 5.0 million per uL of blood.

Erythrocytes

What is the nonliving fluid matrix portion of blood?

Plasma

What is the technical name for a blood clot?

Thrombus

What type of tissue is blood?

Connective

How many liters of blood are contained in the circulatory system of the average adult?

5.5L

What is the least common blood type in whites, blacks, and Asians?

AB

What is the technical term for the process of blood clot formation?

Hemostasis

Whole blood is composed of plasma and ________________.

Formed Elements

The largest of the leukocytes.

Monocytes

What is the smallest of the leukocytes?

Lymphocytes

You are given a capillary tube containing uncentrifuged blood and told to determine the patient's hematocrit. The original column height before centrifuging is 50 mm. After spinning, the bottom layer of the capillary tube containing cells is 20 mm and the top layer containing plasma is 30 mm. What is the patient's hematocrit value?

40

Also called reduced hemoglobin, this is the form of hemoglobin that results after oxygen diffuses into the blood.

Oxyhemogloblin

This type of leukocyte is present in high amounts in the blood when a patient has a parasitic infection.

Neutrophil

James has a hemoglobin measurement of 16 g/100 ml blood. This is:

Within normal range

No visible cytoplasmic granules are present in:

Monocytes

Place the following in correct developmental sequence:


1. reticulocyte
2. proerythroblast
3. normoblast
4. late erythroblast

2, 4, 3, 1

The slowest step in the clotting process is:

Formation of prothrombin activator

A lack of intrinsic factor, leading to a deficiency of vitamin B12 and large pale cells called macrocytes, is characteristic of:

Pernicious anemia

Which sequence is correct for the following events?
1. fibrinogen ® fibrin
2. clot retraction
3. formation of thromboplastin
4. prothrombin ® thrombin

3, 4, 1, 2

Fred's blood was determined to be AB positive. What does this mean?

There are no antibodies to A, to B, or to Rh antigens in the plasma.

Which of the following is a precursor of a basophil?

Myeloblast

Sickling of red blood cells can be produced in those with sickle-cell anemia by:

Travel at high altitude and vigorous exercise

When can erythroblastosis fetalis not possibly happen in the child of an Rh negative mother?

If the father is Rh−

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