What is political ideology?
a cohesive set of beliefs that form a general philosophy about government/ offers a negative view of the present and a positive view of the future
What causes differences in political differences?
political socialization, gender gap, liberal v conservatives
What are liberal's general view of people?
people are generally rational/ want to help you to be all that you can be
What are conservatives' general view of people?
people are inherently bad and need intervention (keep govt out)
True or False: Republicans and Democrats will say whatever they can to get the support of the people
What is the famous quote that associates with conservative view?
"If ain't broke don't fix it" "it ain't broke"
What is the political view of most Americans?
middle of the road (polarized), which means they sway conservative or liberal with each issue
True or False: a single poll result can be meaningful
False: a single poll result is virtually meaningless
What is the Enthusiasm Gap?
When one party is not in public opinion's favor and the opposing side becomes enthusiastic for the upcoming election, whereas the current party is less than enthusiastic
(example republican and tea party joined forces to do more, Obama not thriving in public praise)
When looking at a poll, what should you look at to ensure its validity of the results?
representative sample, how big is the sample, who what when, margin of error
True or False: A margin of error of +/- 4 is valid
False less than 3 makes it valid, anything above that is invalid
What is selection bias?
when polling asks a certain group of people to get the results they want/ make adjustments to get the poll to do what they want them to do
Which president went against bad polling and went on a whistle train voyage to improve his reputation?
Which president relied on polls too much that the press actually announced him president before looking at the voting results and discovered he didn't win?
Why is radio and headline news so repetitive?
so everyone is able to listen or see it when they tune in/ radio- most people listen to it when they are in the car, people are not in the car more than 30 minutes, so it is a drop in drop out media
Which group is most popular on talk radio?
Conservatives (Glenn Beck) ... why? older viewers listen to radio (many older viewers are conservatives)
Describe the relationship between government and media?
FFCC- regulates offensive material tv and radio
Which demographic is the news media most responsive to?
higher income, education, men, older
(they are the ones that are involved), they are the ones the news appeals to in tv
Why are newspapers and magazines going broke?
internet and television have become increasingly popular as it provides free coverage of news
Although its availability is a plus, what is the primary weakness of internet news?
The validity of it, the site may not contain true news
What kind of control does government have on media?
billboard, internet, and newspaper regulative (
prior restraint- stop before releasing news)
What are sound bites?
small clips that the news uses to convey an idea (often taken out of context to attract viewers) / photo op's are also a form of sound bites
What are news leaks?
political anonymously leak high level ino/ discolor of confedential material to news media
What is agenda setting?
news media has the power to bring attention to certain issues that might not be on the top, but make on the top
True or False: American people have a nationalization of political views/ we see politics in the same general way
Blogs are what type of political media?
commentary- you get support on what you believe f for a specific topic
What quotes are the determining factor for what media views as news worthy?
"dog bites man"- no news
"man bites dog"- news
Why do politicians leak information to reporters?
to cultivate a relationship with them, so they have pull with them in reelections or take make them look good in public's eyes
What happens after a few legible leaks that the politicians gives to the reporters after they ensure an understood agreement with them?
they begin to give them falsehoods
What impact does media have on voting?
spins stories or concentrates on a particular candidate or emphasizes the weakness of a candidate
What are some forms of political participation?
lobbying, voting, litigation, giving money to candidate, protest, fun for office, putting up a sign
What explained the generally low level of voter turnout?
people forget to register/ they don't care, campaigns are long and people tend to grow tired of them/ don't think they can make a difference politically
What were some ways that early voting polls prevented blacks to vote?
poll taxes, literacy tests, resident requirements, grandfather clause
What is the most recent group of people that were allowed to vote?
18-21 age group, " if i'm old enough fight, why can't i vote?"
Which group tends to vote more and which tends to vote less?
higher econ/ higher education- vote higher
lower econ/ lower education- vote lower
What racial background votes the highest?
whites, but latino with the high income level is the same number as whites with high income
Approximately what percentage of eligible American voters have voted in recent presidential elections?
What is the main difference between voting and lobbying?
Unlike voting, lobbying involves an attempt to directly influence a government
Litigation is a form of participation in which people do what?
file lawsuits in order to change public policies.
The political power of Asian Americans has recently been hindered because of the
diversity of national backgrounds and cultures.
What was the Supreme Court case that ruled prayers in public school unconstitutional?
Engel v. Vitale
The power of the Christian Coalition in the 1990's in the 1990's was due to (its ability to do what)?
its success in mobilizing a large grassroots base.
what tendency of Americans did the nineteenth century writer Alexis de Tocqueville identify as distinctive of our democratic culture?
tendency to protest policies through riots and other forms of violence
A political _____ is the process by which large numbers of people are organized for political action.
the socioeconomic status model explains political participation by examining an individuals (What)?
level of education, income, and occupational status.
the strongest critique of the socioeconomic status model for explaining political participation is that?
education levels are rising while rates of participation are falling.
James Madison and other framers of the Constitution thought that____ would always be the most important source of conflict in political life
inherent gulf between the rich and poor
The _________ are among the most powerful forces operating in the marketplace of ideas.
One major difference b/w college graduated and other Americans can be seen in levels of
political participation; college graduated participate more in politics than Americans with less education
People's underlying beliefs and ideologies
color their perceptions so that often make make automatic judgement on particular issues
What error is present in this poll question: " Do you think it was appropriate for President Bush to lie to get us into war with Iraq?"
The processes through which underlying political beliefs and values are formed are collectively called
Recent studies by political scientists have shown
the average American exhibits knowledge of political institutions, processes or leaders
How did the framers of the Constitution affect the power of public opinion on government policy?
by creating a system that did not let popular opinion translate into public policies
The practice of push polling involves
the technique of asking loaded questions in order to subtly shape the respondent's opinion.
What is the likely cause for the differences of opinion of African- Americans and white American concerning the OJ Simpson trial?
black and whites have different perspectives and experiences with the criminal justice system
"The south's move from the Democratic to the Republican camp took place because of white southern opposition to the Democratic Party's racial policies."
how politics conditions affect political beliefs.
In many respects schooling in the US
helps determines a person's success, a great equalizer, teaches children a common set of civic values
People are more likely to change their opinions when they are
don't have any strong feelings about the issue
Although political color our political perspectives, they seldom fully determine our views. Why?
most people have at least some conflicating underlying attitudes/ individuals may have difficulty linking particular issues of personalities to their own underlying beliefs/ most individuals' ideologies contain internal contradictions
Who support the social/political status quo and who is suspicious of govt. regulation of business, favors govt involvement in social issues and believe the govt should promote prayer in school
who supports political and social change, government intervention in economy and expansion of federal social services, mistrusts the government involvement in personal issues, such as to tell how or when children should pray
The ______ is the interplay of opinions and views that takes placed as competing forces attempt to persuade as many people as possible to accept a particular position on a particular event
marketplace of ideas
What can contribute to a lack of consistency between opinion and governmental policy?
a committed minority that can override the viewpoint of the majority
term used to denote the beliefs that people have issues, events, and personalities is
set of underlying orientations, ideas, and beliefs through which individuals come to understand and interpret politics is called
What mechanism is currently used by many states to allow public opinion to directly control policy?
initiatice and referendum
impression conveyed by polls that something is important to the public when it actually is known as the
illusion of saliency
The FFC requires broadcasters to provide individuals the right to respond to personal attacks, which is known as the
right of rebuttal
Today most publishers
are business people and are more concerned with business operation than editorial content
The process by which a relatively similar picture of events, issues, and problems are presented to the entire nation is referred to as
nationalization of the news
According to the text, what must Americans tolerate to guarantee the maintenance of a democratic society?
the media will occasionally abuse their power
What factors influences the interpretation a news story receives from the media?
audiences of the news, journalist and producers, the sources or topics of the news
What event do authors not use to illustrate the power of the media in US politics?
savings and loan scandal
According to the authors, which media outlet tended to cover international news most thoroughly?
Times of London
Although they represent only a small percentage of the population, individuals under the age 50 whose family income is in the 80th percentile or better account for the nearly 50 % of the retail dollars spent on consumer goods in the US." this supports
print and broadcast media cater to the preferences of consumers/ media cater to the upscale segment of their audience/ the media attempt to understand the tastes and preferences of consumers
The new liberal network Air American Radio was created in order to
combat conservative dominance of talk radio
The decline of party organization since the 1970's has increased the dependence that politicians have on
In 2004 Democratic primary, Al Sharpton's efforts to force the issue of poverty the level of a major issue
did not succeed because the journalists did not consider it to be a major issue
Slate magazine, ActBlue, and Facebook illustrate
The growing influence of the internet in american media
what happened to the adversarial relationship b.w the press and the govt. in the aftermath of 9/11 attacks?
the media openly supported the Bush administration in the aftermath of the attacks but has recently begun to criticize P. Bush's approach to Iraq
Media frenzy over the Monica Lewinsky scandal is evidence that
the media's bias is more oriented to entertainment than ideology
Broadcaster must provide candidates for the same political office equal opportunities to communicate their messages to the public. this is the
equal time rule
process by which a relatively similar picture of events, issues, and problems are presented to the entire nation is referred to as
nationalization of news
What best describes the relationship bw the govt and the media in the US today
the govt does not own but regulates the content and the ownership of broadcast media
Media coverage heavily influenced public opinion in which event?
Watergate, negotiations by P. Nixon to end V. War/ forced the other candidate to make poverty a major issue in their campaigns
more than ___ of the daily newspapers in the US are owned by large conglomerates as the Hearst or gannet corporations
advertising in the mass media is heavily skewed toward
upscale, well-educated, and affluent consumers because they have the money
As Americans are becoming more educated,
we are seeing an overall tendency for political participation to decline
In terms of mobilizing their constituents political parties
are beginning to reemphasize direct voter mobilization
What was the effect of the Motor Voter Registration Act in the first Presidential election after it passed?
voter registration rose, but voter turnout didn't
citizens who engage in letter writing, signing petitions and other forms of political activity usually focus their efforts on
local and state level
most recent expansion of the suffrage in the US took place in 1971 when the
voting age reduced to 18
when income and education are taken in account Latinos and African American vote at
same or slightly higher than white ethnics
the phenomenon called "gender gap" refers to the fact that
women are more likely to vote democrat than men are
the debate over____ provokes questions about whether we need more direct participation to promote political equality and a vibrant democracy
participation that involves assembling crowds to confront a govt or other official organization is considered
checkbook democracy rises when
theres' a decline in political participation/ fund raising becomes the most important task for political organizations/ participation levels take on a unequal economic bias
why do some argue that the secession of the rich from public institutions is weakening democracy
b/c by not participating in public institutions the rich don't have a stake in what happens to them
registration requirements were instituted in the early 20th century
to make voting more difficult, to reduce multiple voting and other corruption, as well as to reduce lower-class voting
_____ is the strategy by which organized interests seek to influence the passage of legislation by exerting direct pressure on members of the legislature