Warren G. Harding
was the 29th President of the United States, serving from 1921 until his death from a heart attack in 1923
a return to "normal" life after the war.
conservatives keep control of suthern governments -> african americans still have limited rights
Teapot Dome Scandal
a government scandal involving a former United States Navy oil reserve in Wyoming that was secretly leased to a private oil company in 1921
elected Vice President and succeeded as 30th President of the United States when Harding died in 1923 (1872-1933)
founder of modern communism
The Communist Manifesto
The book written by Karl Marx and Frederich Engels that outlined how every society in the world would eventually reach communism.
Russian founder of the Bolsheviks and leader of the Russian Revolution and first head of the USSR
a period of general fear of communists
A. Mitchell Palmer
attorney general, used red scare to deport 100s of foreigners
a series a government attacks on suspected radicals in the United States led by the U.S. attorney general A. Mitchell Palmer
Immigration Act of 1924
Also known as the "National Origins Act," this law established quotas for immigration to the United States. Immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe were sharply curtailed, while immigrants from Asia were shut out altogether. (774)
Sacco and Vanzetti
were two italian born american laborers and anarchists who were tired convicted and executed via electrocution on Aug 3 1927 in Ma for the 1920 armed robbery. it is believed they had nothing to do with the crime
Ku Klux Klan
founded in the 1860s in the south; meant to control newly freed slaves through threats and violence; other targets: Catholics, Jews, immigrants and others thought to be un-American
William Joseph Simmons
Leader and founder of the second KKK (Ku Klux Klan)
African American leader durin the 1920s who founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association and advocated mass migration of African Americans back to Africa. Was deported to Jamaica in 1927.
1st black to earn Ph.D. from Harvard, encouraged blacks to resist systems of segregation and discrimination, helped create NAACP in 1910
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, founded in 1909 to abolish segregation and discrimination, to oppose racism and to gain civil rights for African Americans, got Supreme Court to declare grandfather clause unconstitutional
Booker T. Washington
African American progressive who supported segregation and demanded that African American better themselves individually to achieve equality.
The Roaring Twenties
the decade of the 1920's, which got the nickname because of the time's prosoerity and excitement.
A payment plan that allows customers to make payments at set intervals over a period of time until the total debt is paid
a factory owner famous for his Model T. He developed the assembly line, which quickened production in factories, as well as the Model T.
31st President during the Great Depression. Not well liked. Ignored the depression of the country and the lack of jobs and homes.
The Great Depression
a time period during the 1930s when there was a worldwide economic depression and mass unemployment
Hawley- Smoot Tariff
charged a high tax for imports thereby leading to less trade between America and foreign countries along with some economic retaliation
Trickle- Down Effect
increased wealth for upper class means benefit for the lower class
The Stock Market
Investment arena that collapsed in October 1929
October 29, 1929; the beginning of the Great Depression when the stock market crashed
Banker who buys out Carnegie Steel and renames it to U.S. Steel. Was a philanthropist in a way; he gave all the money needed for WWI and was payed back. Was one of the "Robber barons"
Line of people waiting for free food
Grapes of Wrath
John Steinbeck's novel about a struggling farm family during the Great Depression. Gave a face to the violence and exploitation that migrant farm workers faced in America
Also known as Hoovervilles. Those with no home or work would create small town like areas of trash, boxes, boards, etc. Many were later burned out by the police force.
photographer who took pictures of the Great Depression, the Dust Bowl, and World War II
a picture "of the Great Depression" taken by Dorthea Lange
Region of the Great Plains that experienced a drought in 1930 lasting for a decade, leaving many farmers without work or substantial wages.
songwriter who wrote songs about the Dust Bowl.
a term, dating from as early as 1907, denoting a resident or native of Oklahoma, these people traveled to California and other states during the Dust Bowl where they found slightly better conditions.
Reconstruction Finance Corporation
Congress set up $2 billion. It made loans to major economic institutions such as banks, insurance companies and railroads.
WWI veterans who marched on Washington demanding their $1,000 bonus pay before the 1945 due date.
legislation for bonus money for veterans that does not get passed
He was the supreme allied commander during the Cold War in 1945. After World War II, MacArthur was put in charge of putting Japan back together. In the Korean War, he commanded the United Nations troops. He was later fired by Harry Truman for insubordination.
34th President who sent federal troops to Little Rock to guarantee that the nine African-American students were protected and integration would occur.
Governor of Louisiana, "Share the Wealth" wants to give $5k to all families
Roosevelt won because people blamed Hoover for Great Depression. Roosevelt compared the average worker to the 'Forgotten man' Hoover gave warnings of what he thought would happen if Roosevelt won.
The New Deal
FDR's strategy to end the depression by trying many different employment projects to put out-of-work americans to work in government organized groups
FDR's Famous Quote
"The only thing you have to fear is fear itself"
informal talks given by FDR over the radio; sat by White House fireplace; gained the confidence of the people
FDR's Wife and New Deal supporter. Was a great supporter of civil rights and opposed the Jim Crow laws. She also worked for birth control and better conditions for working women
Security and Exchange Commission
(SEC) Regulate stock market and protect investors from dishonest trading practices
National Industrial Recovery Act
(NIRA) authorized the President to regulate banks, and stimulate the United States economy to recover from the Great Depression. To do this it established the National Recovery Administration.
Emergency Banking Relief Act
gave the President power over the banking system and set up a system by which banks would be reorganized or reopened.
when FDR closed ALL the banks for 8 days, and good banks reopened and bad banks did not.
Glass- Steagall Act
established the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) and included banking reforms, some of which were designed to control speculation.; were both reactions of the U.S. government to cope with the economic problems which followed the Stock Market Crash of 1929.
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
(FDIC) a federally sponsored corporation that insures accounts in national banks and other qualified institutions
Federal Securities Act
required corporations to provide complete information on all stock offerings and made them liable for any misrepresentations
Agricultural Adjustment Act
(AAA) Restricted production during the New Deal by paying farmers to reduce crop area.
Tennessee Valley Authority
(TVA) A relief, recovery, and reform effort that gave 2.5 million poor citizens jobs and land. It brought cheap electric power, low-cost housing, cheap nitrates, and the restoration of eroded soil.
Civilian Conservation Corps
Provided jobs for young men to plant trees, build bridges and parks, and set up flood control projects
National Recovery Administration
agency which called for fair competition and collective bargaining and allowed workers to unionize, it failed because it expected too much self sacrifice (NRA)
National Labor Relations Act
A 1935 law, also known as the Wagner Act, that guarantees workers the right of collective bargaining sets down rules to protect unions and organizers, and created the National Labor Relations Board to regulate labor-managment relations.
Works Progress Administration
(WPA) New Deal agency that helped create jobs for those that needed them. It created around 9 million jobs working on bridges, roads, and buildings.
Federal Art Project
part of WPA that paid artists to do public art works
National Youth Administration
(NYA) provided education jobs counseling and recreation for young people. part time positions at schools for students allowed for aid in h.s. college and grad school. part time jobs for drop outs
Social Security Act
guaranteed retirement payments for enrolled workers beginning at age 65; set up federal-state system of unemployment insurance and care for dependent mothers and children, the handicapped, and public health