Chapter 11-12 quizzes

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clavulanic acid

A chemical that inhibits beta-lactamase enzymes is ____ ____; is a inhibit bacterial beta-lactamase, treat with Amoxicillin or Ticarcillin

superinfection

A results from decrease in most normal flora with overgrowth of an unaffected species; infection that occurs while you are being treated for another infection

dead

A microorganism that is not motile and has stopped metabolizing could be considered ______ .

Acyclovir

_______is used to treat shingles, chickenpox, and genital herpes;

naked viruses

Alcohols are more effective at inactivating enveloped viruses than ____ ____ .

benefits of food irradiation

It can kill bacterial pathogens, and insects on the food. It can also inhibit the sprouting of white potatoes as well as reduce the number of food-borne deaths each year.

allergic reactions

The drug acts as an antigen.
Hives may be the result after the drug is taken.
Anaphylaxis can occur.
These are all _____ ______.

iodophors

These are complexes of iodine and a neutral polymer.
this formulation allows a slow release of free iodine and increases its penetration.
it is less prone to staining or irritating tissue.

Lysol, hexachlorophene, triclosan, and cresols.

these are phenols or phenolics

fluoroquinolones

This is a broad spectrum that includes ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin, thats used to treat respiratory, urinary, and sexually transmitted infections by inhibiting bacterial DNA replication.

hypochlorites

These release hypochlorous acid in solution and cause denaturation of enzymes. It is found in common household bleach and used to disinfect dairy, restaurant, and medical equipment.

detergents

A cleansing substance that acts similarly to soap but is made from chemical compounds rather than fats and lye

Aminoglycosides

Which drugs bind to the 30S ribosomal subunit and interfere with the initiation complex, causing a misreading of mRNA?

blocks DNA replication

An antiviral that is a guanine analog would have an antiviral mode of action that ____ _____.

Aniline dyes

are very active against gram-positive species of bacteria and various fungi, used for antisepsis and wound treatment

Penicillium, Bacillus, Streptomyces, Cephalosporium.

These are all derived from antibiotics

broad-spectrum drugs

Antimicrobics effective against a wide variety of microbial types are termed ____ _____.

narrow-spectrum drugs

Antimicrobics effective against only gram positive bacteria would be termed ____ ____.

HIV

Antivirals that target reverse transcriptase would be used to treat ___.

Chlorine dioxide

a gas used to sterilize objects or instruments

Ciprofloxacin

an oral antibiotic (trade name Cipro) used against serious bacterial infections of the skin or respiratory tract or urinary tract or bones or joints

Drug susceptibility testing

determines the pathogen's response to various antimicrobics.

hepatotoxic

toxic to the liver

Dry heat

This is less efficient than moist heat

Ethylene oxide

gas used to sterilize heat sensitive ingredients

Filtration

an effective method to remove microbes from air and liquids

HEPA filters

are used to remove microbes from air.

antimicrobic drugs

These important characteristics readily delivered to the site of infection, high toxicity against microbial cells, do not cause serious side effects in humans, and remains active in body tissues and fluids, refer to_____.

Betadine

(an iodophor used in bacterial control) damages granulation tissue only use on intact skin.

refrigeration

decreases chemical reactions/ bacteriostatic, food, drug and culture preservation

ultraviolet radiation, boiling wate, HEPA filters, and pasteurization.

Physical agents for controlling microbial growth include:

transformation, transduction, and conjugation

Resistance factor plasmids are transferred to other bacterial cells during

degermation

Scrubbing or immersing the skin in chemicals to reduce the numbers of microbes on the skin

Sterilization

the procedure of making some object free of live bacteria or other microorganisms (usually by heat or chemical means)

antibiotics

Substances that are naturally produced by certain microorganisms that can inhibit or destroy other microorganisms are called ______.

Sulfonamides

metabolic analogs of PABA and block folic acid synthesis

MIC

Minimum Inhibitory Concentration

Chlorhexidine

The compound that is an organic base containing chlorine and two phenolic rings, and is used increasingly for handscrubbing, neonatal washes, wound degerming, and prepping surgical skin sites is _______.

metronidazole

The drug used for several protozoan infections is ______.

amphotericin B

The most versatile and useful antifungal drug that is used to treat serious systemic fungal infections is ______.

disinfectants

agents that destroy pathogens other than spores

flora

all the plant life in a particular region

aminoglycosides

This drug is used to treat cases of tuberculosis

trimethroprim

Which antimicrobic does not interfere with protein synthesis?

Tetraclycline

Which antimicrobial is contraindicated for children due to permanent tooth discoloration?

hydrogen peroxide

Which chemical is a disinfectant for soft contact lenses?

AZT

it directly binds to reverse transcriptase and prevents reverse transcription of HIV RNA, The drug ________seems to slow down the AID's infection by inserting itself into a growing DNA chain of HIV and terminating synthesis.

antivirals

inhibit viral DNA or RNA replication in the virus, treat viruses

glutaraldehyde

officially accepted as a sterilant and high-level disinfectant.

fungal spores

These microbial forms have the highest resistance to physical and chemical controls

Alcohol

This type of agent targets protein conformation

protein conformation

The structure of a protein

bactericide

any drug that destroys bacteria or inhibits their growth

Liver

Which organ is responsible for metabolizing and detoxifying foreign chemicals in the blood, including drugs?

Ultraviolet Light

denatures proteins; damages DNA, perm destroys important molecules; treat sewage, make raisins (sun)

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