Primitive or "reptilian" brain- found at the base of the brain over the back of the neck and underneath the limbic system. This structure is responsible for the basic vital life functions such as breathing, heartbeat, and blood pressure- it is our life support system and controls the basic biological functions that keep us alive.
The most primitive region of the brain and the lower region that connects to the spinal cord. Responsible for the basic body functions and the attention and arousal levels.
> medulla, reticular activating system, pons and
Where most neural fibers cross and is between the pons and spinal cord. It is responsible for maintaining vital body functions such as breathing, heart rate, blood flow, respiration, digestion, vomiting.
Reticular Activation System (RAS)
Part of brain stem involved in arousal and attention, sleep and wakefulness, and control of reflexes- located inside the brainstem, between the ears and is a finger-shaped network of neuron that extends from the spinal cord, though the pons right up to the thalamus
the "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem; it helps coordinate voluntary movement ,posture and balance. has 2 hemispheres and a highly folded surface like the cerebrum.
critical for arousal and wakefulness; sends information to and from medulla, cerebellum, and cerebral cortex- also connects the 2 hemispheres of the cerebellum to coordinate movements on both sides of the body.
Locate just above the hindbrain-- it is very small in humans but controls some very important functions ( coordinates simple movements with sensory information)- consists of the tectum and tegmentum.
Controls what we think of as thought and reason. The size of our forebrains is what makes humans, human- the "highest" part of the human brain
>Corpus callosum, Cerebral cortex, Basal ganglia and
A doughnut-shaped system of neural clusters involved in emotional association with memory.
> Hippocampus, amygdala, hypothalamus, thalamus
Looks like a sea horse- part of the brain linked to memory- when it is damaged, new memories can't be formed ( old memories as left intact)- important for concerting short term memory to more permanent memory, and for recalling spatial relationships in world about us.
A cognitive disorder associated with damage to the hippocampus due to chronic alcoholism.
the relay station for all sensory information ( except smell)- takes incoming sensory information and relays it to the cerebral cortex
A tiny mass located below the thalamus- involved in regulation sex hormones and biological rhythms, body temperature, blood pressure, emotions, hunger/thirst, and reward- helps the pituitary gland control the endocrine system.
2 lime bean-sized neural clusters playing a major role in the expression of primal emotions: rage, fear, happiness- it is believe to be the primary agent of emotion control ( is part of the basal ganglia)
A set of brain structures located between the thalamus and outside shell of the brain primarily responsible for motor programming amygdala is one of the structures in the basal ganglia
Largest and outermost part of the brain that surrounds and covers the limbic system much like a helmet ( the wrinkled part of the brain). this is the part of thebrain where all the abilities unique to humans reside- higher order thinking.
Associated with creativity - Portion of the brain that gets sensory information from and controls the left half of the body
Associated with logic - Portion of the brain that gets sensory information from and controls the right half of the body
Right hemisphere controls left side of the body and right hemisphere control left side of the body.
Bundle of nerve fibers connecting the left and right hemispheres of the brain that allows the 2 hemispheres to communicate
Deep canyonlike crevices in the brain's surface
The large fissure that separates the right and left hemispheres - runs from the front of the brain to the back.
The large vertical fissure that separates the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe - separates the motor cortex from the somatosensory cortex.
The large fissure that runs horizontally and marks the division between the frontal and temporal lobe
4 main lobes of the brain
Frontal lobe, parietal lobe, temporal lobe, occipital lobe
Located behind the forehead - interprets and controls emotional behaviors, makes decisions, carry out plans; associated with reasoning, planning, parts of speech, movement, emotions, and problem solving - damage to this area causes personality changes
Controls body movements - works contralaterally (i.e. left side of brain controls the right side of body while right side of brain controls the left side of body)
Controls delicate, fine motor motions
Involved in decision making, judgment, problem-solving - accounts for almost 1/3 of the entire weight of the cerebral cortex (larger than any other animal)
Found only in the left portion of the motor cortex and is responsible for coordinating the muscles used in speech. Damage to this area might leave us unable to make the muscle movements needed for speech
Located at top of brain & associated with movement, orientation, recognition, perception of stimuli (pain, touch, temperature) - Contralateral (opposite side) representation of all body parts
A strip of the parietal lobe specialized for processing sensations of touch and for integrating various sensations (pressure, pain, temperature, itch, vibration, muscle tension) - separated from the motor cortex by the central fissure
Condition that occurs due to lesion (damage) in the occipital lobe where the patient has an inability to combine individual visual impressions into complete patterns (only sees parts of a whole instead of the whole)
Primary area for hearing, understanding language (Wernike's area) - Right temporal lobe important for understanding music/tonality, Smell processed near front of temporal lobes - Sound from both ears processed mostly contralaterally
Responsible for interpretation of both written and spoken speech - plays role in understanding language and making meaningful sentences.
Primary area for processing vision - located in the back of the head - contains the primary visual cortex
a loss or impairment of the ability to produce and/or comprehend language, due to brain damage
Broca's aphasia (aka expressive aphasia)
A condition in which the patient has difficulty speaking, but can still continue to understand speech. This is due to damage in _____ area.
Wernike's aphasia (aka receptive aphasia)
A condition in which damage to Wernike's area affects the ability to understand language. The person hears the word correctly but finds it difficult to interpret - grammatical arrangement of words may also be confused when speaking.
hemispheric specialization (or brain lateralization)
The specialization of function in each hemisphere of the brain
split brain patients
Patients suffering from severe epileptic seizures who have had their corpus callosum severed to reduce the spread of neural activation during a seizure
Appear normal - perceptual, cognitive, motor and intellectual skills remain intact, and personality and mood are unaffected by surgery. However, under more controlled procedures, some unusual effects of surgery are evident.
The ability of the brain, especially in our younger years to compensate for damage
Any damage to the brain or the rest of the nervous system.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor - medication used to treat depression and anxiety. Allows the serotonin to be used more efficiently by inhibiting reuptake into the presynaptic cell, thus allowing it to maintain higher levels of serotonin in the brain