The first class of French society made up of the clergy of the Roman Catholic Church.
2% of population, rich nobles, owned 20-25% of land, no taxes
97% of the population (the rest of France) They consisted of the bourgeoisie, the san-culottes and the peasants; they paid high taxes and had no special privileges. other than starving to death i suppose.
A group of French intellectuals who proclaimed that they were bringing the light of knowledge to their fellow creatures in the Age of Enlightenment.`
French upper middle class. much more wealthy than the peasants but not really anything compared to the nobles. didn't have much for influence either
- King of France (1774-1792). In 1789 he summoned the Estates-General, but he did not grant the reforms that were demanded and revolution followed. Louis and his queen, Marie Antoinette, were executed in 1793.
financial expert of Louis XVI, he advised Louis to reduce court spending, reform his government, abolish tarriffs on internal trade, but the First and Second Estates got him fired. peasants and middle class weren't happy about this
France's traditional national assembly with representatives of the three estates, or classes, in French society: the clergy, nobility, and commoners. The calling of the Estates General in 1789 led to the French Revolution.
list of grievances drawn up by delegates going to the meeting of the estates general
tennis court oath
A pledge made by the members of France's National Assembly in 1789, in which they vowed to continue meeting until they had drawn up a new constitution
Medieval fortress that was converted to a prison stormed by peasants for ammunition during the early stages of the French Revolution.
what mistakes did Louis xvi make that helped bright about the revolution?
Revoked Edict of Nantes (resulting in emigration of 200,000 skilled, tax-paying Huguenots), , Bankrupted France by sending loads of money to help the Americans fight the american revolution and refused to tax the privileged class (the ones who had the money), allowed his already hated wife to do whatever she wanted with tax money.
what were some of the major economic and social problems facing France on the eve of the revolution?
france was bankrupt, peasants were taxed, there wasn't enough food
French Revolutionary assembly (1789-1791). Called first as the Estates General, the three estates came together and demanded radical change. It passed the Declaration of the Rights of Man in 1789.
The panic and insecurity that struck French peasants in the summer of 1789 and led to their widespread destruction of manor houses and archives.
After France's defeat in the Franco-Prusian War, the liberal National Guard rebuffed the Third Republic's effort to disarm them and formed an independent Paris, with it's own government. The conservative president of France, Adolph Thiers, sent more troops to capture Paris and a bloodbath ensued. Independent Paris was defeated.
marquis de Lafayette
(4.4) a French aristocrat who offered his assistance to George Washington in 1778. He lobbied for French reinforcements in 1779, and led a command in Virginia in the last years of the war.
Lead by Marquis de Lafayette, this army was formed after the Bastille to suppress revolutionaries
declarations of the rights of man
stated that all males have the right to be free and that men are born and remain free in equal rights
olympe de gouges
A proponent of democracy, she demanded the same rights for French women that French men were demanding for themselves. In her Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen (1791), she challenged the practice of male authority and the notion of male-female inequality. She lost her life to the guillotine due to her revolutionary ideas.
Queen of France (as wife of Louis XVI) who was unpopular her extravagance and opposition to reform contributed to the overthrow of the monarchy; she was guillotined along with her husband (1755-1793)
tuileries vs. Versailles
civil constitution of the clergy
A body of legislation passed in July 1790 that redefined the relationship between the clergy and the state in France. It allowed for the confiscation of church property formerly used to support the clergy, replacing it with a guarantee of state salaries for clergymen instead. It also stipulated that parish priests and bishops be elected just like public officials. The National Assembly attempted to enforce it by requiring the clergy to take an oath, divided public opinion of the French Revolution (1789-99) and galvanized religious opposition.
constitution of 1791
Constitution prepared by National Assembly which was increasingly referred to as the Constituent Assembly. Document complete in 1791. Established a unicameral(one-chambered) assembly which was the legislature(law-making body). The king had a suspensive(delaying) veto only therefore the executive branch of govt. was weak.
French nobles who fled from France during the peasant uprisings. They were very conservative and hoped to restore the king to power.
(1729-1797) Member of British Parliament and author of Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790), which criticized the underlying principles of the French Revolution and argued conservative thought.
declaration of pilnitz
the statment made by Austria and Prussia that they would attack France if anything happened to the King or Queen
In December of 1789 this was a paper currency issued by the Constituent Assembly which had confiscated church property and issued this paper money based on this land. Initially could just by land with it though later it was used as a general currency. Supposed to help ease the difficulties of peasants but all sorts of problems with it - overissued plus easily forged.
In the French Revolution, a radical group made up of Parisian wage-earners, and small shopkeepers who wanted a greater voice in government, lower prices, and an end of food shortages
Radical republicans during the French Revolution. They were led by Maximilien Robespierre from 1793 to 1794.
storming of the tuileries
August of 1792. Working class of Paris with support from provincial troops stormed the Tuilieries Palace, massacred the Swiss Guard and imprisoned the king and queen. Stimulated establishment of revoltionary commune which forced the calling of a Constitutional Convention to write a more democratic constitution than the one of 1791.
Consisted of several Attacks on the prisons in Paris. The first attack occurred when twenty-four priests being transported to a prison named L'Abbaye were attacked by a mob of angry citizens of Paris. They quickly and grotesquely killed all of the priests as they were trying to escape into the prison and moved on to kill other prisoners as well. Approximately 1200 prisoners were murdered.
A national meeting of delegates elected in primaries, caucuses, or state conventions who assemble once every four years to nominate candidates for president and vice president, ratify the party platform, elect officers, and adopt rules.
A region of france that rebelled against the revolutionary government after the king was beheaded during the French Revolution. This began a large-scale civil war within France.
a group of moderates. Felt that the revolution had gone far enough and wanted to protect the wealthy middle class from radical attacks. Organized support to resist strength against the mountain
levee en masse
A national draft in France in 1794, created under the Jacobins, of a citizen army with support from young and old, heralding the emergence of modern warfare.
"The incorruptable;" the leader of the bloodiest portion of the French Revolution. He set out to build a republic of virtue., He was a lawyer and a member of the National Convention. Led the Mountain side of the National Convention. Had the Mountains join forces with the sans-culottes, as well as joining the Committee of Public Safety. Helped France's financial situation through the concept of planned economy (setting price limits on certain products). Was a very large part of the radicalization of France, but efforts eventually led to the fall of France and take-over by Napoleon Bonaparte. He claimed that the Revolution was over. In a sense he was right; the last reforms were made in 1791. The people strongly disliked him for his views on the disablement of speaking against the republic. He was one of the main contributors to the laws that stated the death penalty for those who went against the revolution.
the committee of public safety
The National Convention formed the Committee of Public Safety and gave it dictatorial power to deal with the crisis affecting France, primarily the economic struggles for the sans-culottes. Robespierre and other Mountain representatives were members.
reign of terror
1793-1794, Robespierre started it. Over 10,000 people executed and if you were against the French, you died.
An execution machine created shortly before the revolution that was used greatly during the French Revolution.
1785-1799. Five man group. Passed a new constitution in 1795 that was much more conservative. Corrupt and did not help the poor, but remained in power because of military strength. By 1797 it was a dictatorship.
. Overthrew French Directory in 1799 and became emperor of the French in 1804. Failed to defeat Great Britain and abdicated in 1814. Returned to power briefly in 1815 but was defeated and died in exile. (p. 591)
A sense of unity binding the people of a state together; devotion to the interests of a particular country or nation, an identification with the state and an acceptance of national goals.
Jacques louis david
French painter known for his classicism and his commitment to the ideals of the French Revolution. His works include The Oath of the Horatii (17850 and The Death of Marat (1793).
Form of government which followed the directory -established by Napoleon-ended when Napoleon was crowned emperor.
A direct vote in which a country's people have the opportunity to approve or reject a proposal
church concordat of 1801
This was the civil code put out by Napoleon that granted equality of all male citizens before the law and granted absolute security of wealth and private property. Napoleon also secured this by creating the Bank of France which loyally served the interests of both the state and the financial oligarchy`
Napoleon's policy of preventing trade between Great Britain and continental Europe, intended to destroy Great Britain's economy.
A military strategy based on small, highly mobile bands of soldiers (the guerrillas, from the Spanish word for war, "guerra") who use hit-and-run tactics like ambushes to attack a larger better-armed enemy.
tsar alexander 1
Other counties don't trust him. gives grand speech, only christian ideals can save europe and restore power, he embodies those ideals so he should be the one to lead.
Napoleon's invasion of russia
Grand army invades Russia but the Russian generals had stripped countryside of supplies; land is too devastated/vast to conquer, Battle of Borodino 1812 (bloodiest battle of Napoleonic Era) - Napoleon wins nothing, forced to retreat from Moscow
battle of Austerlitz (1809)
The Napoleon victory over Russia and Austria that collapsed the Third Coalition
Consisted of Britain, Russia, Austria, Sweden, and Prussia, defeated by Napoleon in brilliant victories (only defeat was off southern coast of Spain)(stopped invasion of England and ensure British Naval supremacy)
battle of nations
October 1813 at Leipzig in eastern Germany. The decisive defeat of the army of Napoleon by combined forces of Prussia, Austria, and Russia.
The tiny island that Napoleon was granted after his abdication. Off the coast of Italy.
(1814-1824) Restored Bourbon throne after the Revoltion. He accepted Napoleon's Civil Code (principle of equality before the law), honored the property rights of those who had purchased confiscated land and establish a bicameral (two-house) legislature consisting of the Chamber of Peers (chosen by king) and the Chamber of Deputies (chosen by an electorate).
battle of waterloo
This was the battle that Napoleon lost after his return from Elba that ended his reign as French ruler
-the small British controlled island where Napoleon was exiled to after his defeat at waterlo
congress of vienna
(1814-1815 CE) Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon.
Austrian minister, believed in the policies of legitimacy and intervention (the military to crush revolts against legitimacy). Leader of the Congress of Vienna
A characterization of elections by political scientists meaning that they are almost universally accepted as a fair and free method of selecting political leaders.
concert of europe
A series of alliances among European nations in the 19th century, devised by Prince Klemens von Metternich to prevent the outbreak of revolutions
A set of beliefs that includes a limited role for the national government in helping individuals, support for traditional values and lifestyles, and a cautious response to change.
goals of conservatism
-No one generation had the right to destroy the partnership between the people and the government, and they had to preserve it and transmit it to the next. No revolutions at all!(some liked gradual changes though
goals of liberalism
-Laissez-faire: No government interference in the economy, poverty is a natural order of nature, government's main function= defense country, police protection of individual, payment and construction of roadways and such
goals of nationalism
The Ottoman province in the Balkans that rose up against Janissary control in the early 1800s. Terrorists from here triggered WWI. After World War II it became the central province of Yugoslavia., Serbia was part of the spark event that started the war. On June 28th 1914, Archduke Ferdinand and his wife Sophia were killed by a Serbian. A-H demanded that the killers be turned over for trial but Serbia refused. Russia had a secret alliance with Serbia so when A-H attacked she came to help. Great Britain and France came in to help Russia. Germany and Italy came in to help A-H.
Serbian leader; led unsuccessful guerrilla war against ottomans, which encouraged serbian identity and culture revival
Greece won independence from Turks in 1830, Both Serbia and Greece were being helped by Russia, and Russia shared Slavic language and Christian Orthodoxy with two territories
Son of Louis XVI. Never ruled because he died in prison during the French Revolution, but he is given this title anyways.
Louis XVIII's hereditary monarchy, bicam legis. Mostly declaration of rights of ma, relig toleration, but Rom Cath official religion. The Charter promised not to challenge property rights of current owners of land that wa confiscated from church.
in 1830 which french king was forced to flee france after the people of paris revolted against his attempts to restrict certain freedoms?
revolution of 1830
This was a socialist uprising in France that was put down by the government, and happened the same year the Borboun monarchy was replaced with Louis Phillipe.
"Citizen King", favored the wealthy, Supported the upper-middle class and outlawed labor unions, lowered voting restrictions; eventually overthrown
In 1830, this movement began and led to battles in Brussels. Eventually, the Netherlands lost this territory because of outer European intervention.
after the prime minister of Poland died, the Polish Communist Party refused to replace him with Soviet's choice, and instead chose Gomulka
February days in france
-proclaimed the Second Republic
February days in france 1848
-proclaimed the Second Republic
june days in france
-upper and middle class interests won control of the govt and shut down national workshops
second republic of France
Temporary government formed in 1848 after Louis Philippe's abdication. Charles "Louis-Napoleon" was elected president. Most active members were the working class who favored socialism, created national workshops
..., nephew of napoleon bonaparte, won the french presidential election in 1848, and named himself emperor Napoleon II in 1852
The nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte became the king of France by the vote of the people, he tried to quiet discontent at home by winning glory for France abroad
Hungarian statesman who led his people in revolt against the Habsburg Empire during 1848-1849, Leader of the Hungarians, demanded national autonomy with full liberties and universal suffrage in 1848.
When the Hungarians tried to win their freedom from the Communist regime in 1956, they were crushed down by Soviet tanks. There was killing and slaughtering of the rebels going on by military forces.
king frederick william 4
The soldier King, Cuts expenditures of the Prussian state ,improves bureaucracy and army, 80% GDP goes to military, Sparta of the North
king frederick william 4 policies
He was known as "The Soldier King". He wore an Army Uniform, lived a disciplined life, woke up at 5am to drill the troops, he personally punished people with small infractions, organized government along military lines. With him in power, commoners became top in government, and of 245 majors, 5 were aristocrats and the rest were commoners. He created the best army in Europe,established Prussian absolutism, infused strict military values on the whole society, loved tall, strong soldiers, created centralized bureaucracy, almost always at peace, known as Sparta of the North, and the Junker Class became military elite.
revolutions of 1848
Democratic and nationalist revolutions that swept across Europe. The monarchy in France was overthrown. In Germany, Austria, Italy, and Hungary the revolutions failed. (p. 595)
social divisions in Latin america
1783-1830, Venezuelan statesman: leader of revolt of South American colonies against Spanish rule. Founded Bolivia. Agreed to emancipation in order to draw slaves and freemen to his cause and to gain supplies from Haiti.
As a result of a slave revolt led by François-Dominique Toussaint-Louverture, what became Latin America's
Leader of the Haitian Revolution. He freed the slaves and gained effective independence for Haiti despite military interventions by the British and French.
father miguel hidalgo
Mexican priest who established independence movement among American Indians and mestizos in 1810; despite early victories, was captured and executed
father jose' morelos
man that called for wide-ranging social and political reform
father jose morelos
A mestizo who wanted universal manhood suffrage, the abolition of slavery, and improved conditions for Mexicans in general.
A person of mixed racial ancestry (especially mixed European and Native American ancestry)
Creoles fearing loss of privileges joined together, led by Agustin de Iturbide to declare Mexican's independence in 1821. Iturbide was overthrown in 1821 and CEntral America had independence from Mexico.
In colonial Spanish America, term used to describe someone of European descent born in the New World. Elsewhere in the Americas, the term is used to describe all nonnative peoples.
jose de san martin
South American general and statesman, born in Argentina: leader in winning independence for Argentina, Peru, and Chile; protector of Peru
Bolivar's plan to unite Ecuador, Venezuela, Peru, Bolivia and Columbia. They united in 1822 but broke part in 1830 because of geography(mountains separated them). He hope it would be a workable union for all Latin American states
He was the son of the Portuguese ruler Dom Joao, and was left behind in Brazil as regent when his father returned to Portugal. He implemented a number of decisions without consulting the government in Portugal. Creoles demanded independence and 8,000 Brazilians signed a petition asking that he assume the position of emperor of Brazil. He accepted and became known as Pedro I, and in September 1822, Brazilian independence was proclaimed, without a shot being fired.
new set start now
1450-1600, "rebirth"; following the Middle Ages, a movement that centered on the revival of interest in the classical learning of Greece and Rome
classicalism, humanism, individulism, power, secularism.
A Renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievements
Branches of knowledge concerned with human beings and their culture: philosophy, literature, and the fine arts, as distinguished from the sciences
Italian city states
The Italian city-states were a political phenomenon of small independent states mostly in the central and northern Italian peninsula between the 10th and 15th centuries. Dominated trade in the Mediterranean.
Italy's leading cultural center during Renaissance; important for trade and commerce;dominated by Medici's
(politics) granting favors or giving contracts or making appointments to office in return for political support
lorenzo de medici
Italian statesman and scholar who supported many artists and humanists including Michelangelo and Leonardo and Botticelli (1449-1492)
characteristics of renaissance art
-rediscovery of the Greco-Roman civilization -emphasized reason and a questioning attitude (the Socratic Method) in contrast to Medieval concern with faith and authorit
(1475-1564) An Italian sculptor, painter, poet, engineer, and architect. Famous works include the mural on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, and the sculpture of the biblical character David.
1483-1520 Short but productive life. Worked in Florence and Rome. Well-known for Madonnas, humanized portrayals of the Virgin Mary with the baby Jesus. Painted frescoes in Vatican Palace - espec. The School of Athens & The Triumph of Religion - reflect artist's strong interest in classical antiquity and Christian religion.
dpecified qualities needed to be a true gentleman, including physical and itellectual abilities and leading an active life
the book of the courtier
In this work published in 1528, Castiglione described the proper etiquette for a nobleman who aspired to public service -- He was to be talented in all things and carry himself with grace and dignity
(1469-1527) Italian historian, statesman, and political philosopher of the Renaissance. His greatest work is The Prince, a book of political advice to rulers in which he describes the methods that a prince should use to acquire and maintain political power. This book was used to defend policies of despotism and tyranny. Machiavelli wrote that a ruler should take any action to remain in power, or that "the ends justifies the means."
A book wrote by Niccolo Machiavelli in 1513 about the imperfect conduct of humans and says how a ruler is able to keep power and manage to keep it disregarding enemies.
German printer who was the first in Europe to print using movable type and the first to use a press (1400-1468)
diet of worms
Assembly of the estates of the empire, called by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in 1521. Luther was ordered to recant but he refused. Charles V declared Luther an outlaw.
peace of augsburg
A treaty between Charles V and the German Protestant princes that granted legal recognition of Lutheranism in Germany.
(theology) being determined in advance especially the doctrine (usually associated with Calvin) that God has foreordained every event throughout eternity (including the final salvation of mankind).
17th century French philosopher; wrote Discourse on Method; 1st principle "i think therefore i am"; believed mind and matter were completly seperate; known as father of modern rationalism
(1561-1626) English politician, writer. Formalized the empirical method. Novum Organum. Inductive reasoning.
A series of steps followed to solve problems including collecting data, formulating a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, and stating conclusions.
(1485-1509) The first Tudor king of England, he worked to end the struggle for power between the Yorks and Lancasters by marrying Elizabeth of York, effectively merging the two sides into Tudors. Helps to affirm his position on the throne with marriage of son Arthur to Ferdinand and Isabella's Catherine of Aragon, later securing a hereditary monarchy for his son Henry.
Form of Protestantism set up in England after 1534; established by Henry VIII with himself as head, at least in part to obtain a divorce from his first wife; became increasingly Protestant following Henry's death
(1564-1642) An Italian who provided more evidence for heliocentrism and questioned if the heavens really were perfect. He invented a new telescope, studied the sky, and published what he discovered. Because his work provided evidence that the Bible was wrong he was arrested and ended up on house arrest for the rest of his life.
sir isaac newton
1643-1727. English physicist, mathmetician, astronomer, natural philosopher, alchemist, and theologian. Published work in 1687 describing universal gravitation, and the three laws of motion, laying the groundwork for classical mechanics.
sir isaac oldton
Famous Northern Renaissance artist, he often used woodcutting along with Italian Renaissance techniques like proportion, perspective and modeling. (Knight Death, and Devil; Four Apostles)
Dutch humanist and theologian who was the leading Renaissance scholar of northern Europe although his criticisms of the Church led to the Reformation, he opposed violence and condemned Martin Luther. he wrote The Praise of Folly, worked for Frobein and translated the New Testament from Greek to Latin(1466-1536)
sir thomas more
(1478-1535) Englishman, lawyer, politician, Chancellor for Henry VIII. Wrote Utopia which presented a revolutionary view of society, in which the problems of society were caused by greed. Executed by Henry VIII for not compromising his religious beliefs.
sir thomas less
A book by Sir Thomas More (1516) describing the perfect society on an imaginary island
The common speech of the masses. They were the alternative to Latin, the language of the learned. The late Middle Ages saw the rise of this form of literature which began to flourish in the 14th century as is exemplified by the works of Petrarch (1304-74), Boccaccio (1313-75). and Chaucer (1342-1400). Though Latin remained the universal tongue of scholarship, politics, and the Church in Western Europe until after the Middle Ages and the Reformation.
A popular English playwright and poet in the 16th century.
the reaction of the Roman Catholic Church to the Reformation reaffirming the veneration of saints and the authority of the Pope (to which Protestants objected)
A 16th century movement in which the Roman Catholic Church sought to make changes in response to the Protestant Reformation
THAT ONE MONK WITH THE 95 Thesis, posted in 1517, led to religious reform in Germany, denied papal power and absolutist rule. Claimed there were only 2 sacraments: baptism and communion.
3 pillars of luther's theology
(johann tetzel sold them) , Selling of forgiveness by the Catholic Church. It was common practice when the church needed to raise money. The practice led to the Reformation. If you buy it- all sins relieved
written by Martin Luther in 1517, they are widely regarded as the primary catalyst for the Protestant Reformation. Luther used these theses to display his displeasure with some of the Church's clergy's abuses, most notably the sale of indulgences; this ultimately gave birth to Protestantism.
prince Frederic the wise
PROTECTED MARTIN LUTHER A prince within the realm of Charles V The 1520s in Saxony He disobeyed the emperor's decree and let Martin Luther stay in his castle. Martin Luther, in return, translated the new testament into German. He was brave to disobey the king, and history has named him wise.
SIGNED PEACE OF AUGSBURG the holy roman emperor ruledan immense empire consisting of spain and its colonies ,the austrlian land, bohmia, hungary, the low countries, the dutch of milan in northern italy ,and the kingdom of italy
(Mary Tudor); ALSO KNOWN AS BLOODY MARY queen of England from 1553-1558; she was Henry 8's first daughter (with Catherine of Aragon) and was declared illegitimate by him, but came to power later and abolished the Church of England as soon as she got to power
MARRIED TO ENGLAND A queen of England- "The Virgin Queen"- who brought England back out of Catholicism and incorporated some Calvinist ideas into Anglicism , (1533-1603) Queen of England from 1558 to 1603; a skillful politician and diplomat, she reasserted Protestant supremacy in England.
Elizabeth and Parliament required conformity to the Church of England but people were, in effect, allowed to worship Protestantism and Catholicism privately
council of Trent
Called by Pope Paul III to reform the church and secure reconciliation with the Protestants. Lutherans and Calvinists did not attend.
COUNTER REFORMATION, A Roman Catholic tribunal for investigating and prosecuting charges of heresy - especially the one active in Spain during the 1400s.
FOUNDED THE JESUITS, RESISTED PROTESTANTISM(1491-1556) Spanish churchman and founder of the Jesuits (1534); this order of Roman Catholic priests proved an effective force for reviving Catholicism during the Catholic Reformation.
SOLDIERS OF THE COUNTER REFORMATION A religious order known as the Society of Jesus, created to strengthen support of the CHurch during the Counter-Reformation. Founded by Ignatius de Loyola in 1534, these "soldiers of the Counter-Reformation" were committed to doing good deeds in order to achieve salvation.
A major change in European thought, starting in the mid-1500s, in which the study of the natural world began to be characterized by careful observation and the questioning of accepted beliefs.
(1473-1543) concluded that the sun is the center of our solar system. Heliocentric Theory or Copernicus Theory. He wrote "On the Revolution of Heavenly Spheres"
heliocentric vs geocentric
WHAT ROTATES AROUND WHAT helio-sun. geo-earth
(1546-1601) Established himself as Europe's foremost astronomer of his day; detailed observations of new star of 1572.
Assistant to Brahe; used Brahe's data to prove that the earth moved in an elliptical, not circular, orbit; Wrote 3 laws of planetary motion based on mechanical relationships and accurately predicted movements of planets in a sun-centered universe; Demolished old systems of Aristotle and Ptolemy
partition of poland
Division of Polish territory among Russia, Prussia, and Austria in 1772, 1793, and 1795; eliminated Poland as independent state; part of expansion of Russian influence in eastern Europe.
God's or nature's law that defines right from wrong and is higher than human law
LIKED ABSOLUTISM, WROTE LEVIATHAN. English materialist and political philosopher who advocated absolute sovereignty as the only kind of government that could resolve problems caused by the selfishness of human beings (1588-1679)
TABULA RASA 17th century English philosopher who opposed the Divine Right of Kings and who asserted that people have a natural right to life, liberty, and property.