Treaty of Paris, 1783
- Treaty Between England and the Colonies
- formally ended the American Revolutionary War
Land Ordinance of 1785
- divided Northwest Territory into a system of townships to facilitate the sale of land to settlers.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
- established a system for setting up governments in the Western territories
- The Point: so these new territories could eventually join the Union, at the same level as the first 13 states
- Shays and a mob of farmers
- marched to a series of destinations including court and the armory
- bad weather, hard times, high taxes = ANGRY FARMERS
- persuaded George Washington and the others that the Articles of Confederation needed to be changed.
- Thomas Jefferson said Shay's rebellion was "medicine necessary for the sound health of government."
- Wrote the first American dictionary (1780's)
- Helped establish American Identity after breaking off from England.
Mount Vernon Conference
Success! - Virginia invited all the states to send representatives to a convention the next year in Annapolis, MD to discuss common problems of Commerce and Navigation
Annapolis Convention 1786
- delegates from fives states met in Annapolis, MD
- conclusion: suggested another convention to AMEND the ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION
Philadelphia Convention 1787
- 12 colonies send delegates to revise the Articles of Confederation
- Delegates soon agree the United States needs a NEW CONSTITUTION
Sir William Blackstone, Commentaries
- "English Common Law"
- created a readable summary of the common law
- later influenced the American legal system.
- The fourth President of the United States (1809-1817) - War of 1812.
- Member of the Continental Congress (1780-1783) and the Constitutional Convention (1787)
- Strongly supported ratification of the Constitution
* Contributor to The Federalist Papers (1787-1788)
The Virginia Plan
- suggested by Randolfe
- plan in which representation in US legislation was based on population
- led to House of Representatives
The New Jersey Plan
- plan in which each state had equal representation in US legislation
- led to the Senate
The Great Compromise
- Promised representation based on population And equal representation
- It was agreed that legislation would consist of two assemblies
The three/fifth's compromise
-The Southern states were pushing for the Virginia Plan, and claimed that the slaves were apart of the population;
- Promised that 3/5ths of a slave would count as a person, only if the slave trade ended 20 years later (1808)
- Not immediate: took persuasion & effort!
- 9/13 must ratify
- So they add Bill of Rights
Critic of the Constitution b/c it didn't protect civil liberties
- Managed to stop ratification, which led to the Bill of Rights
Critic of the Constitution
- Helped address civil liberties through pushing for revising the Constitution
The Federalist Papers
This collection of essays by John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, and James Madison, stressed the importance of a strong central government
- Published to support the ratification of the Constitution.
Judiciary Act, 1789
- placed in every state, a Federal court that operated according to local procedures (Supreme Court still had final jurisdiction)
Bank of the U.S.
*Alexander Hamilton - wants to see economic BOOM (like Industrial Revolution in England)
- To pay off debt
- Central bank
I.O.U.'s to war veterans
~ BUT - Farmers/ veterans need $, so they sell their IOUs to Fat Cats for less than the original value
~ HAMILTON: We will redeem warrants 100%! Rediculous!!!
* Fat Cats gain vested interest in gov't (exactly what Hamilton wanted)
Report on Manufacturers
1. Tariffs - duty, tax on imports --> manufacturing companies in US love this! (more people forced to buy local products)
2. Surveys - Census (base marketing off census)
3. Subsidies - gifts or loans by the gov't.
Locating the nation's capital
- B/c Hamilton's Economic plan begins to pay for states' debts a little TOO late (most Southern states had already paid off their debt), the gov't promises to build a new nation's capital closer to the South.
The Whiskey Rebellion
- farmers refuse to pay federal excise tax on whiskey (too expensive!) and attack Federal tax collectors
- Washington responds decisively with troops (1792-1794)
Washington's Farewell Address
Warned Americans not to get involved in European affairs, not to make permanent alliances, not to form political parties and to avoid sectionalism.
The Alien and Sedition Acts
- Adams passed each act:
* Naturalization Act - lengthened residency requirement (citizenship)
* Alien Act - President permitted to arrest all aliens deemed, "dangerous"
* Alien Enemies Act - allowed President power over aliens & arrest and expulsion of enemy aliens during war time
* Sedition Act - Criticism of Fed gov't made illegal: Republican newspapers silenced, many arrested (Lyons)
The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
In response to the Alien and Sedition Acts:
- believed that the states and NOT the Supreme Court had the right to review the legality of laws.
FOUNDATION OF STATES RIGHTS
Doctrine of Nullification
- states could refuse to obey federal laws if such laws violated the Constitution
- advocated by Southern leaders
The Election of 1800
Nasty battle, Thomas Jefferson (Democratic Republican) defeated John Adams (Federalist).
a 1793 statement by President Washington that the United States would not support or aid either France or Britain in their European conflict
a. French harrassing American ships
b. Adams sends 3 emissiaries to Paris
c. REJECTED by French gov't agents sent by Tallyrand
- demands a bribe to even begin negotiations!
- US gov't OUTRAGED
d. Adams does not wage war (like Federalists want!), but the unofficial Quasi War begins
- start building navy
The Louisiana Purchase
- Jefferson buys Louisiana territory from the French (Napoleon)
- 15 million
- leader of Haitian Revolution against French-occupying gov't
* slave-uprising--> slaughter owners
* scared Southern plantation owners
* New England's merchants opposed the War of 1812 because it cut off trade with Great Britain.
** Critics of the war were mainly Federalists who represented New England.
- The Essex Junto was a group of extreme Federalists led by Aaron Burr who advocated New England's secession from the U.S.
- meeting of Federalists dissatisfied with the War of 1812
- the point: to draft a new Constitution
- public saw this as traitorous
*resulted in Federalist party's collapse
Chisolm v. Georgia, 1793
- Supreme court case ruled that a state could be sued in federal court by NON-residents (1793)
- Amended Constitution in 1794: private citizens could no longer use Federal courts to sue other states' governments in civil cases
Marbury v. Madison, 1803
- Established concept of judicial review (first time supreme court declared something 'unconstitutional')
Fletcher v. Peck, 1810
1810 - Georgia state legislature had tried to revoke a land grant (Yazoo lands) from private speculators.
(*Yazoo Land Act of 1795 - land split into 4 tracts and sold to land speculators, public later found out that GA legislature was bribed to approve this Act, officials involved not re-elected, so new officials try to revoke/repeal Act and land)
- The Court ruled that a state cannot arbitrarily interfere with a person's property rights. Since the land grant was a legal contract, it could not be repealed, even if corruption was involved.
- First time a state law is declared unconstitutional; 'contract' part of the Constitution overrode state law.