Treaty of Paris, 1783
- Treaty Between England and the Colonies
- formally ended the American Revolutionary War
Land Ordinance of 1785
- divided Northwest Territory into a system of townships to facilitate the sale of land to settlers.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
- established a system for setting up governments in the Western territories
- The Point: so these new territories could eventually join the Union, at the same level as the first 13 states
The Northwest Territory
The western lands (townships), soon to be populated!
- Shays and a mob of farmers
- marched to a series of destinations including court and the armory
- bad weather, hard times, high taxes = ANGRY FARMERS
- persuaded George Washington and the others that the Articles of Confederation needed to be changed.
- Thomas Jefferson said Shay's rebellion was "medicine necessary for the sound health of government."
- Wrote the first American dictionary (1780's)
- Helped establish American Identity after breaking off from England.
Mount Vernon Conference
Success! - Virginia invited all the states to send representatives to a convention the next year in Annapolis, MD to discuss common problems of Commerce and Navigation
Annapolis Convention 1786
- delegates from fives states met in Annapolis, MD
- conclusion: suggested another convention to AMEND the ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION
Philadelphia Convention 1787
- 12 colonies send delegates to revise the Articles of Confederation
- Delegates soon agree the United States needs a NEW CONSTITUTION
Montesquieu, The Spirit of Laws
- separation of powers
- "checks and balances"
Sir William Blackstone, Commentaries
- "English Common Law"
- created a readable summary of the common law
- later influenced the American legal system.
John Locke, Second Treatise of Government
Government created to protect life, liberty, and property
- The fourth President of the United States (1809-1817) - War of 1812.
- Member of the Continental Congress (1780-1783) and the Constitutional Convention (1787)
- Strongly supported ratification of the Constitution
* Contributor to The Federalist Papers (1787-1788)
The Virginia Plan
- suggested by Randolfe
- plan in which representation in US legislation was based on population
- led to House of Representatives
The New Jersey Plan
- plan in which each state had equal representation in US legislation
- led to the Senate
The Great Compromise
- Promised representation based on population And equal representation
- It was agreed that legislation would consist of two assemblies
Checks and balances
- Separation of powers
The three/fifth's compromise
-The Southern states were pushing for the Virginia Plan, and claimed that the slaves were apart of the population;
- Promised that 3/5ths of a slave would count as a person, only if the slave trade ended 20 years later (1808)
- Not immediate: took persuasion & effort!
- 9/13 must ratify
- So they add Bill of Rights
Critic of the Constitution b/c it didn't protect civil liberties
- Managed to stop ratification, which led to the Bill of Rights
Critic of the Constitution
- Helped address civil liberties through pushing for revising the Constitution
The person who proposed the Bill of Rights be added to the Constitution.
The Bill of Rights
First 10 amendments to the Constitution that protected individual rights
The Federalist Papers
This collection of essays by John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, and James Madison, stressed the importance of a strong central government
- Published to support the ratification of the Constitution.
Judiciary Act, 1789
- placed in every state, a Federal court that operated according to local procedures (Supreme Court still had final jurisdiction)
Bank of the U.S.
*Alexander Hamilton - wants to see economic BOOM (like Industrial Revolution in England)
- To pay off debt
- Central bank
I.O.U.'s to war veterans
~ BUT - Farmers/ veterans need $, so they sell their IOUs to Fat Cats for less than the original value
~ HAMILTON: We will redeem warrants 100%! Rediculous!!!
* Fat Cats gain vested interest in gov't (exactly what Hamilton wanted)
Debt, national, state, foreign
Report on Manufacturers
1. Tariffs - duty, tax on imports --> manufacturing companies in US love this! (more people forced to buy local products)
2. Surveys - Census (base marketing off census)
3. Subsidies - gifts or loans by the gov't.
Locating the nation's capital
- B/c Hamilton's Economic plan begins to pay for states' debts a little TOO late (most Southern states had already paid off their debt), the gov't promises to build a new nation's capital closer to the South.
The Whiskey Rebellion
- farmers refuse to pay federal excise tax on whiskey (too expensive!) and attack Federal tax collectors
- Washington responds decisively with troops (1792-1794)
Washington's Farewell Address
Warned Americans not to get involved in European affairs, not to make permanent alliances, not to form political parties and to avoid sectionalism.
The Alien and Sedition Acts
- Adams passed each act:
* Naturalization Act - lengthened residency requirement (citizenship)
* Alien Act - President permitted to arrest all aliens deemed, "dangerous"
* Alien Enemies Act - allowed President power over aliens & arrest and expulsion of enemy aliens during war time
* Sedition Act - Criticism of Fed gov't made illegal: Republican newspapers silenced, many arrested (Lyons)
The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
In response to the Alien and Sedition Acts:
- believed that the states and NOT the Supreme Court had the right to review the legality of laws.
FOUNDATION OF STATES RIGHTS
Doctrine of Nullification
- states could refuse to obey federal laws if such laws violated the Constitution
- advocated by Southern leaders
The Election of 1800
Nasty battle, Thomas Jefferson (Democratic Republican) defeated John Adams (Federalist).
a 1793 statement by President Washington that the United States would not support or aid either France or Britain in their European conflict
a. French harrassing American ships
b. Adams sends 3 emissiaries to Paris
c. REJECTED by French gov't agents sent by Tallyrand
- demands a bribe to even begin negotiations!
- US gov't OUTRAGED
d. Adams does not wage war (like Federalists want!), but the unofficial Quasi War begins
- start building navy
The Louisiana Purchase
- Jefferson buys Louisiana territory from the French (Napoleon)
- 15 million
- leader of Haitian Revolution against French-occupying gov't
* slave-uprising--> slaughter owners
* scared Southern plantation owners
Lewis and Clark
- sent on an expedition by Jefferson to explore/map out Louisana Territory
* New England's merchants opposed the War of 1812 because it cut off trade with Great Britain.
** Critics of the war were mainly Federalists who represented New England.
- The Essex Junto was a group of extreme Federalists led by Aaron Burr who advocated New England's secession from the U.S.
- meeting of Federalists dissatisfied with the War of 1812
- the point: to draft a new Constitution
- public saw this as traitorous
*resulted in Federalist party's collapse
- inventor (invented the cotton gin in 1793)
*refueled the cotton and slave industries
Chisolm v. Georgia, 1793
- Supreme court case ruled that a state could be sued in federal court by NON-residents (1793)
- Amended Constitution in 1794: private citizens could no longer use Federal courts to sue other states' governments in civil cases
Marbury v. Madison, 1803
- Established concept of judicial review (first time supreme court declared something 'unconstitutional')
Fletcher v. Peck, 1810
1810 - Georgia state legislature had tried to revoke a land grant (Yazoo lands) from private speculators.
(*Yazoo Land Act of 1795 - land split into 4 tracts and sold to land speculators, public later found out that GA legislature was bribed to approve this Act, officials involved not re-elected, so new officials try to revoke/repeal Act and land)
- The Court ruled that a state cannot arbitrarily interfere with a person's property rights. Since the land grant was a legal contract, it could not be repealed, even if corruption was involved.
- First time a state law is declared unconstitutional; 'contract' part of the Constitution overrode state law.
Dartmouth College v. Woodward, 1819
1819 -- New Hampshire attempted to take over Dartmouth College by revising its colonial charter.
- The Court ruled that the charter was protected under the 'Contract' part of the Constitution
- significant limitation on state authority