a group of nomadic people who may have from the steppes
dry grassland that stretched north of the Caucases
the mountains that are between the Black and Caspian Seas.
movement oof a people from one region to another
Who: a group of Indo-European speakers
When: about 2000 BCE
Where: Anatolia/ Asia Minor
What: They dominated Southwest Asia for 450 years and occupied Babylon. They also made a peace treaty with Egypt. They used chariots to get around and used iron technology to make stronger tools.
Why: They blended their tradition with others and more advanced people.
Another Ino-European group of people whose homeland was somewhere between the Caspian and Aral seas
Who: Aryans, another group of Indo-Europeans speakers
When: Before 2000 BCE
Where: Somewhere between the Caspian and Aeal seas
What: sacred literature; four collections of books prayers, magical spells, and instructions for performing rituals and left a picture of Aryan life. revealed truth and sometimes knowledge
Why: Because they didnt really have evidence of written records, this sacred literature as the only evidence because everything was mostly oral tradition.
The most important and oldest collection of hymns (1000 hymns to gods that were orally momorized)
a social system that the Aryans used; exploreres from Portugal encountered it and called it the ... system
one of the great epics (long narrrative stories) of India that tells the struggle of Aryans to control their civilization
a part of the Mahabharata; it tells the story of a warrior prince who is about to go to war.
good or bad deeds; follows from one reincarnation to another; generation to generation
an individual soul or spirits is born again and again until moksha is acheved
state of uinderstanding of all things; when a person understands the relationship between atman and Brahman ; then they are released from this world.
writtens as dialogues or discussions between a student and a teacher. ; through this the two see how a person can achieve liberation from desires and suffering
in Hindu belief, a person's essential self or soul
world soul that has all souls
in Buddhism the religious duties/ morals and obligations of each caste; the Buddha's doctrine or teachings
The trinity of hinduism
Brahma: the creator
Vishnu: the protector
Shiva: the destroyer
Shiva nataraj: Lord of the dance
the full understanding everything in the Buddha religion or Wisdom
the Buddha's word for release from selfishness and pain.
Who: A powerful seafaring people who dominated trade When: from about 2000 to 1400 BCE
Where: eastern Meditteranian; Crete
What:island that traded pottery, swords, figurines, and vessels of precious metals, exported art and culture (stepping stone);
Why: One of the seafaring people who dominated trade.
the capital city of the Minoans
the greatest Phoenician colony
the Phoenician writing system- which helped develop the alphabet that spread throughout the world (used by greeks, americans... etc.)
Phoenician trade items
papyrus, purple cloth, and cedar
the belief in one god
a major political kingdom that developed along the Ganges
Who: the cultural blend of many other religions as well as the use of Vedas- Vedic Hymns
when: over many centuries
what:believed in enlightenment, and reincarnation like Buddhism. accepted the caste system, Karma, and many gods (brahman, tman, etc.)
who: Siddhartha Guatamo, the founder of Buddhism
when: 563-483 BCE
where: Modern day Nepal
what: founder of Buddhism and means "the enlightened one"
why:he's the founder of Buddhism and created the Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path to understand the truths of life and its sufferings. Spread throughout the world, and China.
Four Noble Truths
1st - life is filled with suffering and sorrow
2nd- cause of suffering is because of peoples unnecessary and temporary desires and pleasures.
3rd- to end suffering, you must end all desires
4th- follow the eightfold path to get rid of desires "middle way" - between desires and self-denial.
Land that people travelled on; helped the Buddhism to spread their culture throughout different place in ther world.
Who: The most powerful traders along the Mediterranean qho conquered Crete after its decline
When: the city state or land ruled about 1100 B.C.E.
Where: Along the Mediterrenean
-founded many wealthy city-states around Mediterranean
-shipbuilders (cedar trees of Leboni)
-1st to trade past the strait of Gibraltar
-developed a writing system - phonetics
- color purple (red-purple dye)
Why: Their sagacious minds were able to do this and advance technology in the world. More people were able to communicate together. They developed the alpahtte which everybody knows and uses today.
a large island on the southern edge of the Aegan Sea
a guide to behavior ( like a staircase)
3 jewels of Buddhism
1. Buddha himself
2. Buddha's Dharma (Teachings)
3. Sangha: Buddhist Community
Mediterranean Sea trade routes
trade routes that were used by the ppl. of the Med. sea
the Buddha's word for release of selfishness and pain... you reach it by following the Eightfold Path.
incarnation of the god Vishnu
A Hindu god considered the preserver of the world; protector
the Destroyer; in Hinduism
the teaching of Buddha that life is permeated with suffering caused by desire, that suffering ceases when desire ceases, and that enlightenment obtained through right conduct and wisdom and meditation releases one from desire and suffering and rebirth
Four Noble Truths
1. life is filled with suffering and sorrows
2. the cause of suffering is because of people's unnecessary and temporary desires and pleasures
3. to end suffering, you must end all desires
4.follow the Eightfold Path to get rid of desires "middle way"- between desires and self-denial