Study of signs and systems of signs, including in music
The assumption that ones own culture is normal and someone elses is strange exotic abnormal
The scholary study of any music within it's contemporary cultural context
Study of orally transmitted folk knowledge and culture
The first hand study of music in it's original context, a technique derived from anthropology
Process of field work
Problems with labeling music
1) asserts a hierarchal value system. Classical be the highest. As if one genre is better than another.
Th study of any music within it's contemporary cultural context
Resources for the study of the World's Music
1) Reference works
A) Garland Encyclopedia of World Music
B) The New Grove Dictionary of Music and
3) Compact Discs
The tone quality or "color" of a musical sound.
(A flat on a violin vs a Piano)
The source of sound, be it instrumental or voice
The study of musical instruments.
Standard classification for musical instruments created by Curt Sachs and Erin M. von Hornbostel. With four primary categories.
Four primary categories of the Sachs-Hornbostel system
(electrophones have become a fifth category)
Produce sound through the DIRECT vibration of air
Ex flutes, reeds, and trumpets
One or more strings stretched between two points
A bar or ridge found on chordophones that enables performers to produce different melodic pitches with consistent frequency levels.
Instruments that produce sound by the interment itself vibrating.
(plucked, struck, and shaken)
i.e. Bells, rattles and various other kinds of percussions
Vibrating stretched membrane as the principle means of sound production.
A tone's specific frequency level, measured in Hertz frequency level (Hz)
All pitches common to a musical tradition
A set of pitches
(CDEFGAB) C major scale
The distance between two pitches.
(A to B) small interval
(A to D) big interval
The span of pitches a voice or instrument is capable of producing.
Organized succession of pitches
The general direction and shape of a melody
A continuous and repeating sound.
Embellishments or decorations that are applied to a melody.
The rhythmic relationship of words to melody.
The lengths, or durations, of sounds as patterns in time.
Regular pulsation of sound
Grouping beats in regular units
Quantity of notes between periodic accents
Relationship between different sounds in a given piece; it can be either monophony or some form of polyphony.
Music with a single melodic line
Juxtaposition or overlapping of multiple lines of music. 3 types: Homophony, independent polyphony, and heterophony.
Multiple lines of music expressing the same musical idea in the same meter.
Multiple lines of music expressing independent musical ideas as a cohesive whole.
Multiple performers playing simultaneous variations of the same line of music
Refers to the relative loudness or softness of a musical sound
The overall pattern of a piece of music as it unfolds in time.