APUSH Ch. 9 Review

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AP US History American Pageant 13th Ed. Chapter 9 Review (Vocab + Questions)

Society of Cincinnati

A group of ex Army officers who created this society for intellectual purposes but viewed by the lower masses as elitist and aristocratic.

Episcopalian Church

The Anglican Church changes it name to this so as not to be identified with the English. Final Break with England

Quakers

First group of people to found the first anti-slavery society (1775)

Republican Motherhood

Women's political responsibility was to educate the young, especially the boys, in the virtue of republican ways, thoughts. In this way they would shape the new country.

Economic Pressures

The Navigation Acts England turned around and would not ship or trade with new states. Cut off trade with West Indies into the states. Economic Depression hit the colonies.

(Loss of) Naval Protection

The independence from the British led to the loss of this because there was nothing to protect American shipping

Articles of Confederation (1777)

A loose alliance of the colonies/states. Not ratified by all 13 until 1781. Biggest argument was what to do over the western lands. A 'firm league of friendship.'

Northwest Land Ordinance (1785)

•Land in the NW would be surveyed and then sold to help pay off debts.
•Land was divided up into 36 sections-36 sq. miles. Each section was 640 acres-1 mile squares, further broken up into half, quarter sections. Smallest being 40 acres.

Northwest Ordinance (1787)

•Federal Government promised all new lands would be turned into separate and equal states. Gave a three step process to accomplish that.
•States like Virginia and New York were claming all the land for themselves—this stopped that.
•Slavery was outlawed in the NW—North of the Ohio River.
•Original 13 states/countries would not have colonies or become an empire—all land obtained would become part of the Union

(Effects of) Foreign Countries

•England would not leave the Ohio River Valley.
•Encouraged Indians to fight the settlers/supplied them with arms.
•Congress could not enforce any trade laws because that was the states prerogative.
•Spain controlled the mouth of the Mississippi River; they shut off all interior trade from Tenn. & Kent.
•Resulted in economic strangulation.
•Spain Also controlled Florida and SE France wanted payment of war debt.
•Spain, Britain & France wanted to hem in the new states.

King Congress

Congress could not collect money. States were levying heavy import taxes on neighbors creating discord. States printing their own money and not using any others

Shays Rebellion

•Farmers could not pay their debts with Continental dollars—Revolutionary war veterans paid in Cont. $'s
•Banks foreclosing on farms cause money was not 'worth a Continental'.
•Scared the power elite in Boston. Put down the rebellion.
•The wealthy afraid of the rule of 'mobocracy.' Points up all the problems of Articles of Confederation (this is why it was important)

Annapolis, Maryland

1786, Five states show up to talk about commerce among the states. Hamilton uses it as a springboard to convene in Philadelphia to revise the Articles.

Constitutional Convention

Convenes in May of 1787 to revise the Articles. Very quickly the proposition is made to throw out the articles and start anew.

James Madison

Father of the Constitution. His idea to make a new government

George Washington

Made Chair/President of the Constitutional Convention

Virginia Plan (Large State Plan)

Representation determined by how many people live in the state. Favored the most populace states. Bicameral govt. Executive, and Judicial Branches.

New Jersey Plan (Small State Plan)

Representation was equal not matter how populated a states was. One state-one vote. Unicameral government

55 (men)

Number of Delagates at Convention who were at the convention. Afraid of 'mobocracy' wanted to safeguard their life and property.

Great Compromise (1787)

•Combination of Virginia and NJ plans
•Roger Sherman, from Connecticut, proposed bicameral gov't. House of Representatives chosen by population, Senate, each state gets two reps.
•There is an executive and judicial system.
•All matters concerning money had to start in the House cause they were closer to the people.

Three fifths compromise

All blacks were to be counted 3/5ths of a person for the purpose of representation.

Anti-Federalist

Those opposed to the Constitution—Jefferson, Henry, Sam Adams. Backwoodsmen, merchants. Lower classes.

Federalist papers

Hamilton, Jay, & Madison write a series of articles for the NY newspapers in support of the Constitution. Most famous is # 10. Madison makes a case that the constitution can work even if American goes across the continent.

Ratification of the Constitution

June 1788. New Hampshire is ninth state to ratify thereby making it the law of the land. New York, Virginia, North Carolina and Rhode Island have to follow suit—can't be left out.

Federalists

Supporters of the Constitution that were led by Alexander Hamilton and John Adams.
They firmly believed the national government should be strong. (Also includes James Madison, Alex Hamilton, John Jay, Washington)

Federalist papers

a series of essays written by three leading Federalists-James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay they supported a form of government that divided power between a strong central government and the states

disestablish

To separate an official state church from its connection with the government

emancipation

Setting free from servitude of slavery.

chattel

An article of personal or movable property; hence the term applied to slaves, since they were considered the personal property of their owners.

abolitionist

Favoring the end of slavery.

ratification

The confirmation or validation of an act (such as a constitution) by authoritative approval.

bill of rights

A list of fundamental freedoms assumed to be central to society.

aliens

Foreigners; also, persons resident in but not citizens of a country.

township

In America, a surveyed territory six miles square; the term also refers to a unit of local government, smaller than a county, that is often based on these survey units.

territory

In American government, an organized political entity not yet enjoying the full and equal status of a state.

annex

To make a smaller territory or political unit part of a larger one.

requisition

A demand for something issued on the basis of public authority.

foreclosure

Depriving someone of the right to redeem mortgaged property because the legal payments on the loan have not been kept up.

quorum

The minimum number of persons who must be present in a group before it can conduct valid business.

anarchy

The theory that formal government is unnecessary and wrong in principle; the term is also used generally for lawlessness or anti-governmental disorder

bicameral

Referring to a legislative body with two houses

Lord Sheffield

he wanted to flood America with cheap goods to destroy our domestic commerce and stop our industrialization so we would crawl back to England (named from where the Arctic Monkeys are from)

Patrick Henry

a leader of the American Revolution and a famous orator who spoke out against British rule of the American colonies (1736-1799)

unicameral

Referring to a legislative body with one house

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