A&P Study Guide 3

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diathroses

Freely moving joints such as knuckles are called

synarthrose

Skull sutures and other immovable joints are called

synovial fluid

The lubricant in the joint cavity of a diarthrosis is called

tendon sheath

A long tubular bursa enclosing a tendon is called

range of motion

The maximum angle through which a joint can move is called

resistance arm

The part of a lever from the fulcrum to the resistance is called

fulcrum , effort

In the elbow, a third-class lever, the ____ is between the ____ and the resistance

dorsiflexion

If you keep your heels on the floor but raise your toes, you are preforming the action of

true

A meniscus is a type of bursa seen, for example, in the space between the femur and tibia

true

The fibrous capsule of a synovial joint is continuous with the periosteum of the adjoining bones

true

If you have been pointing toward a car on your right using your right hand and then you reach into your pocket for your keyes, your arm has exhibited adduction

syndesmosis

Two long bones joined by a broad interosseous membrane from a type of joint called

false

Suppose you grasp a doorknob with your right hand and turn the knob clockwise to open the door. In doing so your forearm has exhibited pronation

false

The wrist can be hyperextended but the elbow cannot

true

The right and left halves of the hard palate are joined by a plane suture

true

A single joint may combine features of condyloid, hinge, and gliding joints

false

The shoulder joint is stabilized mainly by its three glenohumeral ligaments

ligament- L

Fibrous band or cord connecting one bone to another

bursa- E

Fibrous sac filled with synovial fluid, adjacent to a joint cavity

saddle joint- A

Synovial joint type unique to the trapziometacarpal joint

pivot joint -H

synovial joint type seen between the radius and ulna and between the atlas and axis

rotator cuff -C

Formed by tendons of the subscapularis, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and teres minor

anular ligament -i

Encircles the head of the radius and enables it to pivot on the ulna

acetabular labrum- m

deepens the socket of the hip joint and helps stabilize the joint

knee-t

location of the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments

calcaneal tendon-r

limits the range of dorsiflexion

knee - t

location of the prepatellar, suprapatellar, and two infrapatellar bursae

c

unlike other joints, a____ does not join two bones to each other
a. pivot joints
b cartilagenous joint
c gomphosis
d squamous suture
e synchondrosis

c

Which movement is limited to the foot
a. pronation
b. elevation
c. dorsiflexion
d. abduction
e. circumduction

a

Which movement is limited to the forearm
a. pronation
b. elevation
c. dorsiflexion
d. abduction
e. circumduction

a

Which of these bursae is not associated with the shoulder joints
a. olecranon bursa
b. subdeltoid bursa
c. subacromial bursa
d. subcoracoid bursa
e. subscapular bursa

b

The rotator cuff includes tendons of all of the following muscles except
a. subscapularis
b. biceps brachii
c. infraspinatus
d. teres minor
e. spraspinatus

b

If two bones are joined so firmly together they cannot move they form
a. diarthrosis
b fibrous joint
c syndesmosis
d synarthorsis
e symphysis

a

the hyaline costal cartilage that attached a rib to the sternum forms
a synchondrosis
b symphysis
c synarthorsis
d syndesmosis
e synostosis

e

We can observe a cartilage pad called a meniscus within the knee and _______ joints
a elbow
b finger
c hip
d intervertebral
e temporomandibular

e

If you stand on tiptoes to reach something on a high shelf, you are performing ________ at the ankle joint
a eversion
b abduction
c opposition
d dorsiflexion
e plantar flexion

d

Suppose a stage actor feigning shyness stood flat-footed, with her heels apart but her toes touching each other. She would be exhibiting
a inversion of the feet
b eversion of the feet
c dorsiflexion of the feet
d medial rotation of the leg
e circu,duction of the leg

c

A fibrous joint cannot also be
a. gomphosis
b diarthrosis
c amphiarthrosis
d synarthrosis
e suture

a

The greatest abundance of tendon sheaths is likely to be found
a. in the wrist and hand
b between adjacent vertebrae
c. in the neck
d. in the thoracic cage
e. in the coxal joint

e

The distal surface of the femur, where it meets the tibia, is covered with
a nothing its just a bone
b synostosis
c synovial membrane
d joint capsule
e. articular cartilage

e

As you take a bite from an apple, you are using mainly ______ of the mandible
a. protraction and retraction
b eversion and inversion
c lateral and medial excursion
d adduction and abduction
e depression and elevation

b

The hip socket is
a. glenoid cavity
b acetabulum
c obturator foramen
d foramen magnum
e olecranon fossa

e

A metacarpophalangeal joint is
a. pivot joint
b ball and socket joint
c gliding joint
d hinge joint
e condyloid joint

d

The rotator cuff tendons enclose the shoulder joint on all sides except ______ which partially explains the nature of most shoulder dislocations
a anteriorly
b posteriorly
c superiorly
d inferiorly
e medially

b

Radial and ulnar collateral ligaments restict side to side movements of the ______ joint
a shoulder
b elbow
c wrist
d hip
e knee

a

The patella and femur form a _____ joint
a gliding
b saddle
c fibrous
d cartilagenous
e condyloid

a

Hyperextension of the knee is prevented partly by
a anterior cruciate ligament
b patellar tendon
c patellar ligament
d calcaneal tendon
e collateral ligaments

c

A tendon sheath is a modified
a. ligament
b joint capsule
c bursa
d tendon
e meniscus

b

A torn tendon or ligament is the cause of
a bursitis
b sprain
c tendonitis
d gout
e rheumatism

sternocleidomastoid

The prime mover of the neck flexion is a prominent muscle on the side of the neck called the ?

fixator

A muscle that prevents unwanted movement of a bone is called a _?

trapezius

The largest muscle of the upper back

rectus abdominis

The linea alba separates the right and left _____ muscles from each other

bicep femoris

The hamstring muscles are the semimembranosus, semitendinosus, and _?

quadricep femoris

The anterior aspect of the thigh is dominated by the _____, a large muscle with four heads

true

All skeletal muscles have their origins and insertions on bone

true

The levator palpebrae is an antagonist of the orbicularis oris

true

Both the hand and the foot have lumbrical and interosseous muscles

sphincters

Several body orifices are regulated by circular muscles are called

fascicles

muscle fibers are arranged in bundles called ___?

true

The bone at a muscle's orgin shows little or no movement when the muscle contracts

true

The actions of a synergist are similar but not necessarily identical to those of a prime mover at the same joint

false

The orbicularis oculi moves the eye, for example when you are reading a page of print

true

When you swallow, you can feel your larynx bob upwards. This results from the action of certain muscles in the infrahyoid group

false

Contraction of the diaphragm expels air from the lungs

aponeurosis- e

A broad flat tendon

prime mover -m

Muscle that produces the main force in a given joint action

semitendinosus -o

Antagonist of the rectus femoris

brachialis- r

Synergist of the biceps brachii

adductor pollicis -y

Forms a web between the thumb and palm

retinaculum -j

Connective tissue band that holds down tendons at the wrist or ankle

psoas major -v

prominent muscle that extends from the lumbar vertebrae to the femur

bulbospongiosus - t

Helps to void urine

urogenital triangle- h

anterior half of the perineum

belly -b

thick middle part of a muscle

c

When a muscle joins a bone and has no visible tendon, it is said to have
a. aponeurosis
b indirect attachment
c direct attachment
d retinaculum
e hidden insertion

e

A ____ muscle of the hand has both its origin and insertion within the hand
a internal
b synergistic
c convergent
d extrinsic
e intrinsic

b

A smile is produced by contraction of the ___________ muscle
a frontalis
b zygomaticus
c depressor anguli oris
d orbicularis oris
e buccinator

b

The ______ muscles pull the skin of the chin upward
a depressor anguli oris
b mentalis
c depressor labii inferioris
d platysma
e masseter

c

All the following are intrinsic muscles of the head excepr
a. temporalis
b. epicarnius
c. sternocleidomastoid
d. risorius
e. nasalis

a

The word hallucis in the name of a muscle means pertaining to
a. great toe
b. thumb
c. ankle
d. wrist
e mind

a

The deepest muscle of the abdominal wall is
a. transversus abdominis
b internal oblique
c rectus abdominis
d erector spinae
e latissimus dorsi

e

The pronator teres and pronator quadratus
a. depress the scapula
b rotate the scapula
c flex the elbow
d turn the palm upward
e turn the palm downward

b

Which one of these muscles helps open the mouth (depress the mandible)
a. zygomaticus major
b digastric
c stenrohyoid
d depressor anguli oris
e mentalis

d

The _____ acts synergistically with the masseter
a. levator scapulae
b splenius capitis
c buccinator
d zygomaticus major
e temporalis

a

The _____ originates on the zygomatic arch and inserts on the angle of the mandible
a masseter
b buccinator
c temporalis
d genioglossus
e zygomaticus major

e

Which of the followering is not a muscle of the lower extermity
a. sartorius
b adductor magnus
c pectineus
d semitendinosus
e flexor carpi ulnaris

b

Which of the following muscles is not below the knee
a. flexor digitorum brevis
b rhomboideus major
c abductor hallucis
d peroneus longus
e soleus

a

Crossing your legs while sitting employs mainly
a. sartorius
b superior gemellus
c piriformis
d pectineus
e bulbocavernosus

a

Which of the following muscles does not act on the tibia or fibula
a. tibialis anterior
b rectus femoris
c biceps femoris
d vastus medialis
e semimembranosus

c

Which of the following is not a muscle of the buttocks
a. tenor fasciae latae
b lateral rotators
c vastus intermedius
d gluteus maximus
e gluteus minimus

a

The _____ is one of the hamstring muscles on the posterior side of the thigh
a semimembranosus
b adductor magnus
c gluteus minimus
d ischiocavernosus
e tensor fasciae latae

d

When you hyperextend your fingers as in admioring a ring you may be able to see three or four prominent tendons stand out on the back of your hand. The tendons arise from
a. flexor digitorum superficialis
b. flexor digitorum profundus
c lumbrical muscles
d extensor digitorum
e dorsal interossei

a

Which of the following perineal muscles exhibits the greatest difference between males and females
a. bulbospongiosus
b. deep transverse perineus
c levator ani
d coccygeus
e external anal sphincter

elasticity

The tendency of a stretch fiber to return to its original length is called

motor unit

One motor nerve fiber and all the muscle fibers innervated by it are called

polarized

A plasma membrane is said to be ____ if there is a difference in charge on opposite sides of it

sliding filament

The _____ theory is the current model of how a muscle fiber contracts

tonus

A resting muscle is normally in a state of partial contraction called

threshold

A muscle fiber will not contract unless it is depolarized to a voltage called its

acetylcholine

Motor nerve fibers release a neurotranmitter called _____ which makes skeletal muscle fibers contract

sacoplasmic reticulum

In resting muscle an organelle called the _______ contains a concentrated solution of calcium

false

one somatic motor neuron can innervate only one skeletal muscle fiber

false

The strength of a muscle contraction depends in part on how many motor units are stimulated

true

Tetanus is a normal part of muscle contraction, not just the name of a bacterial disease

true

A contracted muscle cannot relax in the absence of ATP

true

Unlike skeletal muscle smooth muscle often contracts even when it is not stimulated by a nerve

false

smooth muscle is not stimulated by acetylcholine

true

endurance exercise promotes the development of slow-twitch muscle fibers

c

Which of the following is/are voluntary muscle
a. smooth muscle
b. cardiac muscle
c. skeletal muscle
d. all of these
e none of these

e

action potentials are propagated from the surface ti the interior of a muscle fiber by way of
a. sarcomeres
b. sarcoplasmic reticulum
c. endomysium
d myofibrils
e T tubules

a

In a relaxed muscle fiber the active sites of actin are blocked by
a. tropomyosin
b. troponin C
c. calcium ions
d. myosin heads
e. intermediate filaments

e

each end of a sarcomere is marked by
a.terminal cisternae
b. I band
c. H band
d. A band
e. Z disc

a

The bright red color of skeletal muscle is due mainly to its
a. myoglobin
b. A bands
c. troponin
d. tropomyosin
e. myosin

e

During the time that a muscle is shortening but maintaining constant tension it is undergoing
a. treppe
b. tetanus
c. multiple motor unit summation
d. isometric contraction
e. isotonic contraction

c

The region of a sarcomere where actin and myosin overlap is
a. Z band
b. H band
c. A band
d. I band
e. jazz band

b

When there is not enough oxygen to create ATP by aerobic respiration a muscle fiber can produce ATP by borrowing phosphate groups from
a. cyclic adenosine monophosphate
b. creatine phosphate
c phospholipids
d cholinesterase
e. creatine kinase

c

Which of the following is considered to be a regulatory protein of the myofilaments
a. G actin
b. calmoudin
c. troponin
d. cholinesterase
e. myosin

a

Posture is maintained mainly by ______ fibers
a. slow-twitch
b. white
c. type II
d. fast-twitch
e. fast glycolytic

e

When smooth muscle exhibits dual innervation it
a. has two nerve fibers for each muscle fiber
b. has two muscle fibers for each nerve fiber
c is supplied by both sypathetic and parasympathetic nerve fibers
d. is supplied by both sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve fibers
e. exhibits both synapes and varicosities

d

after a muscle fiber has exhausted its stores of ATP and creatine phosphate it switches to a _______ as a source of energy
a. glycolysis
b. fat oxidation
c. MMU summation
d. anaerobic fermentation
e. phosphagen system

true

suppose you take a bite from a carrot. The force that your teeth apply to the carrot will be less than the force that the chewing muscle exert on the mandible

true

smooth muscle is not as limited as skeletal muscle by the length-tension relationship

b

You have just played a stunning violin concerto the audience is wild with applause and you take a deep bow using your
a. gluteus maximus muscles
b. iliopsoas muscle
c. extensor hallucis longus muscles
d. dorsal interosseous muscle
e. lumbrical

a

The blood brain barrier consists of tight junctions in the
a endothelium
b neurons
c ependymal cells
d oligodendrocytes
e microglia

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