APUSH: Chapter 8

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101 terms · 1801-1824; Jeffersonianism and the Era of Good Feelings

Thomas Jefferson

the president of the US from 1800-1804, conducted the Louisiana purchase; repealed taxes & repaid the debt to restore liberty

republicans, federalists

"We are all ______, we are all _______."

Inaugural Address, paid off the debt, repealed taxes, smaller army

what Jefferson did in his first term to restore liberty and tranquility (4)

closed overseas embassies

method Jefferson used to stabilize foreign finances

Jefferson's Revolution

name of Jefferson's restoration of liberty and tranquility to the US due to despotism

Tripolitan Pirates, 1801

attacked by the American navy under Jefferson due to piracy + year

less costly

reason for Jefferson's war w/ Tripolitan pirates in North Africa

John Marshall

the most well-known chief justice; brought honor to the Supreme Court & gave it its greatest powers (ie judicial review)

judicial review

the Supreme Court's ability to deem Congress's jurisdiction unconstitutional / interpret the Constitution as a law (can be revoked)

Louisiana Purchase, 1803

Jefferson's land acquisition from France (Bonaparte and Talleyrand); doubled the size of the US

strict interpretation

controversy over Louisiana Purchase

importance of east coast

why the Federalists opposed the Louisiana Purchase

farming, more land, not sandwiched btw GB and France, trade

why the Democratic-Republicans supported the Louisiana Purchase (4)

Marbury v Madison

case in which Marshall created the power of judicial review; let neither Jefferson nor Marbury win

Lewis and Clark

two explorers sent to explore he newly acquired Louisiana Purchase; led to more accurate maps

water route across the US

purpose of Lewis and Clark expedition

Aaron Burr, James Wilkinson

man who allied with High Federalists (radical) to divide the US; later tried to ally GB and France to take over the US and Mexico + ally

attack West Florida, conquer Mexico, create Western confederacy

actions Aaron Burr took to divide the US (3)

couldn't prove actions

why Aaron Burr couldn't be accused of treason

John Randolph, popular liberty

a Republican Virginian who challenged all of Jefferson's decisions + what he thought each govt. should espouse

Yazoo Land Scandal

event in which the Georgia legislature was bribed to sell land cheaply to land companies + 3 mil. acres given to investors

northerner purchases

why Jefferson didn't want to attack the Yazoo Land Scandal

Fletcher v Peck

case in which states wanted land back from investors; Marshall rules that states can't revoke contracts

loose interpretation

how John Marshall interpreted the Constitution in the Fletcher v Peck and McCulloch v Maryland cases

protected private property

how the Fletcher v Peck decision supported capitalism

impressment

the forced capture and enlistment of American/GB sailors in the US

Chesapeake-Leopard Affair

event in which GB's HMS Leopard attacks Am. USS Chesapeake & takes 'deserters' off the US ship + 1807

Embargo Act, 1807

passed by Jefferson due to impressment and 'peaceful coercion"; prevented American vessels from going to foreign lands; caused major economic depression + date

James Madison

president of the US from 1808-1812; waged the War of 1812, dealt with Embargo Act issue (ie war hawks, Tecumseh); helped with internal improvements

Non-Intercourse Act, Embargo Act

passed by Madison to trade with all countries except GB and France unless neutrality was accepted + which act it replaced

Macon's Bill No. 2

passed by Madison to continue trade w/ GB and France; stated that the US would halt trade w/ the other if they accepted neutrality

peaceful coercion

obtaining compliance without using force

war hawks

extreme nationalists who wanted to get rid of GB and Sp. from the US; allied with the West

alliance btw. GB and Indians

common fear between war hawks and the westerners

Tecumseh

Shawnee chief who was infuriated by the Treaty of Fort Wayne; led an Indian attack against American settlers in Ohio/Indiana territory

Treaty of Fort Wayne

forced Indians to cede land in Indiana along the Wabash for 2 cents/acre

Battle of Tippecanoe

battle btw. Tecumseh and Harrison (Am); persuades Tecumseh to ally w/ GB

War of 1812

war waged by Madison btw. GB/US over neutrality and impressment; didn't resolve many issues

war hawks

supporters of the War of 1812

Treaty of Ghent

ended the War of 1812; established "status quo ante bellum"

Andrew Jackson

led the US army; became famous from the Battle of New Orleans

Battle of New Orleans

the greatest Am. victory after the War of 1812; made Jackson a national hero

Hartford Convention

held by Federalists over the War of 1812, Republican anger, and amendments to the Constitution

Era of Good Feelings, 1817-1824

a period of time under Monroe's rule in which political divisions were little, impressment ended, and both nationalism and sectionalism grew

James Monroe

pres. of the US from 1817-1825; dealt with the Missouri Compromise, sectionalist divisions, and the Monroe Doctrine

Henry Clay, Kentucky

Republican who created the "American System"; later tried to become a presidential candidate + state

Second Bank of the US, 1816

the national bank whose charter expired in 1811; created overspeculation & tightened loan policies caused the Panic of 1819 + when it was rechartered

lack of gold and silver in Peru, loan policies, overspeculation, recovery of European agriculture

led to the collapse of the American economy (4)

specie

gold and silver; hard currency

tighten the money supply

what the 2nd BUS was supposed to due to the loans

couldn't pull loans back

why the 2nd BUS caused deflation (due to # of loans)

Tariff of 1816

passed by Madison before leaving office to aid the newly sprawned textile/ manufacturing industry

American System

Henry Clay's proposed economic measures; wanted to make the US ind. of Europe

Dartmouth College v Woodward

case in which NH wanted to make its private college public; Marshall says charters cannot be changed; questions state sovereignty

Panic of 1819

event in which the US economy declined; people/state banks go into debt, prices fall freely; due to 2nd BUS loan issues

McCulloch v Maryland

case caused by the Panic of 1819; Maryland attempts to tax the BUS; Marshall says states can't tax institutions

regulate interstate commerce

the BUS's implied powers, stated by McCulloch v Maryland

Missouri Compromise

debate btw. north and south states over the # of free/slave states; slavery arises as an issue

John Quincy Adams

Monroe's secretary of state; dealt with foreign policy btw. GB and Sp., helped expansionist ideals

impressment

ended after the War of 1812 (not stated in Treaty of Ghent)

36-30 line

line created by the Missouri Compromise; lands north were free while south were slave states

Maine

admitted as a free state in 1820 to resolve the Missouri Compromise

Adams-Onis Treaty

treaty btw. US and Sp., gave the US Florida / Texas and a new southern border; access to the Pacific and Oregon

Oregon

land the US was able to explore after the Adams-Onis Treaty

Monroe Doctrine, 1823

declared American neutrality & abstinence from European wars ; denied Am. lands to European colonization (seen as 'unfriendly act') + date

Holy Alliance, South American revolts

who Spain wanted to ally with in 1823 + why

wanted Texas and Cuba

why Adams rejected allying with GB

interpretation of Constitution, race mixing, supported French Rev, questioned Christian doctrine

why Jefferson was seen as a controversial figure (4)

bank, Louisiana Purchase

when Jefferson changed his interpretation of the Constitution to benefit himself

impressment, peaceful coercion, seizure of American ships

why Jefferson passed the Embargo Act of 1807 (3)

hurt foreign markets, rise of manufacturing and industry

effects of the Embargo Act in the US (2)

British markets in South America and Spain, less American exports

effects of the Embargo Act abroad

farmers, land owners, Massachusetts merchants

people affected by the Embargo Act (3)

GB wants to hurt the US economy, impressment

why Madison chose to go to war with Britain

Hartford Convention

what brought on the end of the 1st Party System

Era of Good Feelings

when the 1st Party system ended

Adams-Onis Treaty, Monroe Doctrine, no impressment, one party system

Why was the period after the War of 1812 known as the Era of Good Feelings? (4)

Corrupt Bargain, role of federal govt

political divisions during the Era of Good Feelings (2)

population spread, sectionalism, slavery

social divisions during the Era of Good Feelings (3)

internal improvement bill, roads and canals

created by Madison to reduce social/ sectionalist tensions (2)

isolationism, neutrality during war, no European colonization

impact of Monroe's administration on foreign policy in the US (3)

Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions

the 'precursor' to the Hartford Convention

capitalism, stronger central government

what Marshall's court promoted through its decisions

Worcester v Georgia

Supreme Ct. case; Georgia kicks Cherokees off their land to take gold; Jackson sends Cherokees on "Trail of Tears"

Supreme Court can only persuade, needed executive to enforce decisions

how the Worcester v Georgia revealed limitations of the Supreme Court

3/5ths Clause, no more than 60 day embargo

general amendments the Hartford Convention called for

no consecutive election from same state, only one term

amendments the Hartford Convention called for (in terms of executive power)

admit states and declare war with 2/3rds vote

amendments the Hartford Convention called for (in terms of state power)

$10 million national debt

why Jefferson thought US was on the road to despotism

popular virtue

Jefferson thought popular liberty meant ______ ______

Judiciary Act of 1801

reduced the # of Supreme Ct. justices from 6 to 5; Jeff. thought it was Adams' way of implementing Federalists

no national issue

why the Federalists were weakening by 1804

mountains between Missouri and Columbia, scientific information

most important info acquired by Lewis and Clark

Battle of Bladensburg

most noteworthy event from the American perspective during the War of 1812

Napoleon abdicates

event in 1814 which might have diverted GB's attention from the US conflicts

Boston newspaper, 1817

origin (& date) of the term "Era of Good Feelings"

Rush-Bagot Treaty

treaty that demilitarized the Great Lakes (from GB)

British-American Convention

gave America fishing rights in Newfoundland, fixed boundaries between Canada, opened the Oregon Territory

Battle of New Orleans, equal footing with major powers

how the War of 1812 stimulated nationalism (2)

economic policy

difference btw. Madison and Jefferson

Henry Clay, John C. Calhoun

later, important national and regional leaders

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