the disintegration of an unstable atomic nucleus into one or more different nuclides, accompanied by the emission of radiation, nuclear capture or ejection of electrons, or fission
the particles that are released from the nucleus during radioactive decay, such as neutrons, electrons, and photons
a nuclide that contains isotopes that decay and emit radiation
a positively charged atom that is released in the disintegration of radioactive elements and that consists of two protons and two neutrons
a charged electron emitted during certain types of radioactive decay
a particle that has the same mass and spin as an electron but that has a positive charge (just like an electron, but positive)
the process in which an inner orbital electron is captured by the nucleus of the atom that contains the electron
the high-energy photon emitted by a nucleus during fission and radioactive decay
__ ____ occurs in all emissions
what particle has a symbol of a p (or H) with both a mass number and atomic number of 1?
what particle has a symbol of an n with a mass number of 1 and an atomic number of 0?
what particle has a symbol of an e with a mass number of 0 and an atomic number of -1?
what particle has a symbol of β with a mass number of 0 and an atomic number of -1?
what particle has a symbol of He with a mass number of 4 and an atomic number of 2?
what has a mass number and atomic number of 0?
(its symbol looks like an upside-down Jesus fish)
what particle has a symbol of e or β with a mass number of 0 and atomic number of 1?
the process involves the bombardment of a nuclide by a small particle ("bullet") that has been accelerated to an extremely high velocity, causing a change within the nucleus of the nuclide
elements formed by artificial transmutations. Proving their existence has been difficult. Neptunium was the first.
What isotope of hydrogen has a mass number of 1?
what isotope of hydrogen has a mass number of 2?
What isotope of hydrogen has a mass number of 3?
determining a number using the data on the graph
determining a number by extending one's graph past the points of data
shielding, fuel rods, control rods, moderators, coolants
What are the 5 main components of nuclear power plants?
decrease radiation emission
What does shielding do?
contain uranium dioxide
What do fuel rods do?
limit the number of free neutrons
What do control rods do?
slow down fast neutrons
What do moderators do?
What produces the fast neutrons that the moderators slow down?
absorb heat from fission
What does a coolant do?
What have the greatest penetrating ability?
What have the lowest penetrating ability?
The penetrating ability of a beta particle is how many times greater than that of an alpha particle?
Alpha particles' penetrating ability is low due to their ___ and ___.
Alpha particles cannot penetrate skin, but are dangerous if ____.
Density = mass/volume
What is the equation for density?
Percent error = |(experimental value - accepted value)| / accepted value X 100
What is the equation for percent error?
a unit used to measure nuclear radiation exposure; equal to the amount of gamma and X-ray radiation that produces 2 X 10^9 ion pairs when passing through 1 cm^3 of dry air
a unit used to measure the dose of any type of ionizing radiation that factors in the effect that the radiation has on human tissue
DNA mutations; cancer
Long-term exposure to radiation causes __ ____ and ____.
use exposure of film to measure approximate radiation exposure of people working with radiation
instruments that detect radiation by counting electric pulses carried by gas ionized by radiation. Typically used to detect beta particles, x-rays, and gamma rays.
to absorb ionizing radiation and emit visible light
instruments that convert scintillating light to an electric signal for detecting radiation
process by which the approximate age of an object is determined, based on the amount of certain radioactive nuclides present
radioactive atoms that are incorporated into substances so that movement of the substances can be followed by radiation detectors. Used to diagnose cancer and other diseases and to tell if fertilizers are effective.
a very heavy nucleus splits into more-stable nuclei of intermediate mass. Spontaneously occurs or can happen when nuclei are bombarded.
reaction in which material that starts the reaction is also one of the products and can start another reaction. Occurs until too many neutrons escape without striking other nuclei.
minimum amount of a nuclide that provides the number of neutrons needed to sustain and chain reaction
use controlled-fission chain reactions to produce energy and radioactive nuclides
radiation-absorbing material used to decrease the emission of radiation, esp. gamma rays, from nuclear reactors
neutron-absorbing rods that help control reactions by limiting the number of free neutrons
used to slow down fast neutrons produced by fission
Nuclear powerplants are good because they create electricity without producing what?
low-mass nuclei combine to form a heavier, more stable nucleus. Lots of energy is needed to initiate this.
dose size, exposure time, area of exposure, type of tissue, energy, penetrating ability, ionizing ability, chemical properties
name 8 factors that determine the amount of biological damage caused by radiation.
how much Uranium is "naturally" radioactive?
how much Uranium is radioactive in "enriched" Uranium?
how much Uranium is radioactive in "weapons grade" Uranium?
water, hydrogen-2, graphite
Name 3 different things that can be used as moderators.
Nuclear powerplants need constant sources of ___.