### critical thinking

process of evaluating claims or hypotheses and making judgments about them on the basis of well-supported evidence

### hypothesis

a prediction stated as a testable proposition, usually in the form of an if-then statement

### operational definition

a statement of the specific methods used to measure a variable; a detailed explanation of the variable

### theory

cluster of explanations of a phenomenon that help predict, explain, and control that behavior

### naturalistic observation

method gathering descriptive information involving watching behaviors, without interfering, as they naturally occur

### case study

used to collect descriptive data through the intensive examination of a phenomenon in a particular individual, group, or setting (particularly useful for rare or complex phenomena)

### survey

questionnaire or interview administered to a large group; designed to obtain descriptions of peoples' behaviors/beliefs

### correlational studies

research method that examines relationships between variables in order to analyze trends in data, test predictions, etc. (they do NOT discern cause and effect relationships)

### experiment

the only research method to show causation, this involves obtaining a random sample of subjects and using control and experimental groups; allows a researcher to control the data-collection process

### independent variable

controlled by the researcher, experienced by the control group, this is what the researcher thinks will HAVE an effect on some other behavior

### dependent variable

behavior affected by another variable, it is observed and measured (usually before and after and experiment takes place)

### control group

provides a baseline for comparison, does not receive critical treatment (independent variable)

### experimenter bias

occurs when experimenters ask leading questions or otherwise search for evidence that supports their hypothesis and don't look for evidence that refutes it

### random variable

a confounding variable in which uncontrolled factors affected the dependent variable along with or instead of the independent variable

### random assignment

random distribution of participants to experimental or control groups - used to distribute the impact of uncontrolled variables randomly, and most likely evenly, across the groups, minimizing the chance they will distort the results

### placebo effect

improvement caused by a participant's knowledge and expectations: can be from a treatment that contains nothing known to be helpful, but that nevertheless produces benefits because a person believes it will be beneficial.

### confounding variable

any factor that affects the dependent variable, along with or instead of the independent variable

### double-blind design

design for research in which neither the experimenter nor the subjects know who is in the experimental or control group

### sampling

the process of selecing participants for research who are members of the population the researcher wishes to study

### representative sample

a group of subjects whose characteristics fairly reflect the characteristics of the population they belong to

### random sample

a group of subjects selected froma population whose members all had an equal chance of being selected

### biased sample

a group of research subjects selected froma population whose members did not all have an equal chance of being chosen

### convenience sample

when researchers draw participants from the populations that are readily available to them

### twin studies

study the heredity-environment question by comparing the similarity seen in identical twins with those of nonidentical pairs

### inferential statistics

set of mathematical procedures that help researchers learn if their research data reflects a true relationship or could be due to random chance

### range

measure of variability that is the difference between the highest and lowest values in a set of data

### standard deviation

measure of variability that is the average difference between each score and the mean of the data set (demonstrates consistency)

### correlation coefficient

a statistic (r) that summarizes the strength and direction of a relationship between two variables

### statistical significance

a term used to describe research results that have been shown by a statistical test to be UNLIKELY to be due to random chance

### ethics

code used by psychologists dictating that they minimize discomfort or risk for research participants

### operational definition

statement of procedures used to define research variables which helps to enable replication

### replication

repeating of research study to determine if its finding extends to other participants and circumstances

### case study

descriptive research technique in which one person or a small group is studied in depth in hope of revealing universal principles

### survey

research method in which info is obtained by asking many individuals a fixed set of questions

### false consensus effect

tendency to overestimate extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors

### random sample

sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion.

### naturalistic observation

descriptive research that involves observing and recording behavior without trying to manipulate and control the situation.

### correlation

measure of the extent to which two factors vary together which can be positive or negative or non

### scatterplot

graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables.

### experiment

research method in which investigator manipulates one or more factors (IV) to observe effect on some behavior or mental process (DV)

### control condition

condition of experiment that contrasts with experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.

### double-blind procedure

experimental procedure in which both research participants and research staff are ignorant about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo.

### experimental condition

condition of experiment that exposes participants to treatment, that is, to one version of the IV

### placebo effect

experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which is assumed to be an active agent.

### dependent variable

variable that may change in response to manipulations of the IV (what is measured)

### independent variable

experimental factor that is manipulated; variable whose effect is being studied.

### statistical significance

statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance - expressed as p or sig.

### Steps in the Research Process

1) select topic, 2) focus question, 3) design study, 4)collect data, 5) Analyze data, 6)interpret data, 7) inform others

### What is a Research Question:

the organizing principle for an individual study. It clarifies exactly what the researcher wants to understand, describe, or explain

### Characteristics of a Good Research Question:

1) It elicits an explanation or description, not an answer 2) It links contructs & suggests associations or relationships 3) It can be addressed w/ empirical evidence 4) It is focused and feasible

### PICO approach

Patient/problem, intervention, comparison intervention, outcomes. Works best for quantitative designs

### Confidence intervals:

allow us to use sample data to estimate a population value like the ture mean or the true proportion. EX: what is the true avg amount students spend weekly on alcohol

### Hypothesis testing:

Allows us to use sample data to test a claim about a population, such as testing whether a population proportion or population mean = some #. EX: is the true avg amount that students spent weekly on alcohol $20

### Null hypothesis:

always represents the status quo, i.e. the hypothesis that requires no change in current behavior.

### Using the PubMed database

Identify the key concepts in your research question. Example: Find citations about bronchodilators for treating asthma in children.The key concepts are bronchodilators, asthma and children Enter the significant terms into the search box. Press the Enter key or click Go

### Writing References in APA style

Author (alphabetical) month/year, journal name, article name, where it was retrieved

### Difference between a literature review and a research paper

Research paper - supports your own argument. Literature review-summary and synthesis of the arguments and ideas of others

### Literature review strategies

Find a focus - organize around an idea, Construct a working thesis statement, Organize: Basic categories include: Introduction Body Conclusions Organizing the body methods include: Chronological, Thematic, Methodological

### Purpose statement

a declarative sentence which summarizes the specific topic and goals of a document. It is typically included in the introduction to give the reader an accurate, concrete understanding what the document will cover and what he/she can gain from reading it. To be effective it should be: specific and precise, concise, clear, goal oriented

### Keys to a Successful Presentation:

Define Objectives, Know Your Audience, Organize Your Presentation, Develop Visual Aids, Address Your Delivery, Develop Your Q&A, Check Out Your Environment

### Scientific Structure

Report of Literature Search, Methodology/Techniques, Results, Interpretation/Discussion, Future Implications

### The 3 step outline of a presentation

Step One: Tell them what you will tell them Step Two: Tell them Step Three: Tell them what you told them

### Importance of visual aids

Increase Audience Interest, Focus Audience Attention, Induce Audience Participation, Reinforce Points of Emphasis, Increase Retention of Content

### Effective delivery factors

Enthusiasm, Audience Bonding, Posture/Movement, Gestures, Eye Contact, Voice Quality

### Hazards of presentations

Poor Introduction, Equipment Failure, Missing Materials, Lighting, Hecklers, Late Returners

### Effective/Ineffective purpose statement: "The purpose of this paper is to describe the changes that are occurring in corporate America

ineffective: too vague

### Ineffective/effective purpose statement:"The purpose of this report is to discuss the eating disorders Anorexia and Bulimia

Ineffective: to vague

### ineffective/effective purpose statement: This article will cover the different ways a company can become organized

Ineffective: obscure and misleading

### Ineffective/effective purpose statement:This paper will describe four common causes of co-worker conflict in organizations and explain how to use a five-step procedure to constructively manage this conflict

effective: very specific

### Ineffective/effective purpose statement: This report will explain how supervisors can use four planning strategies to improve employee productivity in the workplace

effective: very specific

### Ineffective/effective purpose statment: This purpose of this report is to describe the main causes of traffic congestion in Seattle

Effective: leaves no doubt about the reporters main purpose

### Research Ethics

3 Principles: Beneficence, Respect, Justice 6 Norms: Valid Research Design, Researcher Competence, Identify Consequences, Appropriate Sample Selection, Voluntary Informed Consent, Inform Participants whether harm will be compensated

### Undoing Deception

Debriefing, Dehoaxing, Guarding Privacy & Confidentiality of Participants, Obtain fully informed consent

### Beneficence

maximizing good outcomes for science, humanity, and the individual research participants & minimizing or avoiding unnecessary risk, harm, or wrong

### Informed Consent

agree to participate without threat or undue inducement knowing what a reasonable person in the same situation would want to know before giving consent & explicitly agreeing to participate

### Random Assignment

assignment of subjects/participants so that both the criteria of equal probability and independence are fullfilled

### Random Selection

the selection of each unit is independent of the selection of any other unit; every person in a population has equal probability of being selected

### Defining Characteristics of Experimental Research

1) change x & observe y 2) control as many variables as possible, manipulate 1 to yield causation 3) results are interpreted as "true" within a certain degree of probability

### Confounds

other factors that can affect an outcome in an experiment- not measured, but explains results

### Independent Variable

a variable that is managed or manipulated in an experiment to determine whether it affects a dependent variable

### Dependent Variable

a variable that is observed or measured in an experiment to determine whether it is affected by an independent variable

### Criterion Variable

a variable being studied in a correlational project, regarding the extent to which it is correctly predicted by one or more predictor variables

### Predictor Variable

a variable being studied in a correlational project, regarding the extent to which it correctly predicts one or more criterion varialbes

### Internal Validity

an aspect of design validity: the extent to which all extraneous variables are controlled, enabling results to be interpreted unambiguously regarding the people, setting & occasions studied

### External Validity

Generalizability of results to other people, times, places & circumstances than those studied, as relevant to the project's mission

### Null Hypothesis

a statistical hypothesis of "no difference" or "no relation" in populations represented by the samples

### Experimental Hypothesis

a statement that expresses a prediction about what the answer to a research question will be or an idea about the phenomenon being studied

### Control Group

composed of subjects that are alike in all preexisting characteristics to the experimental group, except for the treatment experienced by the experimental group

### Correlational Coefficient

a statistical measure expressing the relationship between two or more variables with a single number between 1 & 1, inclusive

### Cross Sectional Research

"cohort design" based on independent group comparisons among samples who have reached different stages of development at the time the study is conducted

### Longitudinal Research

studies the same people at different times; inferences about the developmental variable are based on repeated measures comparisons

### Case Study

descriptive research approach- studies intensively a given social unit (individual, group, institution, etc.)

### Ethnographic Research

research method designed to describe & analyze practices & beliefs of cultures & communities; involves entering into first hand interaction with people in their everyday lives

### Participatory Research

participants participate in the research process- Cooperative Inquiry or Participatory Action Research

### Threats to Internal Validity

1) History 2) Maturation 3) Testing 4) Instrumentation 5) Statistical Regression 6) Differential Selection 7) Experimental Mortality 8) Selection-Maturation Interaction 9) Experimental Treatment Diffusion 10) Compensatory Rivalry by Control Group- John Henry Effect 11) Compensatory Equalization Diffusion 12) Resentful Demoralization of the Control Group

### Stratified Sampling

a method of sampling in which the population is subdivided according to one or more stratification variables before the sample is selected, each subdivision of the population is represented by a corresponding subdivision in the sample

### Intensity Sampling

sites or individuals are selected in which the phenomenon of interest is strongly represented , but not necessarily extreme

### Simple Random Sampling

random sampling applied to the entire frame at once; requires access to the entire population-every person has equal probability of being selected

### Probability Sampling

sample is drawn in such a way that makes it probable that the sample is approximately the same as the population on the variables to be studied (SRS, systematic, stratified, cluster, multistage)

### Convenience Sampling

a set of individuals studied in a research project because they are conveniently available, without regard to whether they are representative of a population

### Operational Definition

experimentally accessible population; moving from a theoretical definition of a concept to something that can be measured; practical, measurable

### Conceptual Definition

a theoretical definition of a concept that uses other constructs to explain the meaning

### Constructivist Paradigm

reality is socially constructed, research-attempt to understand from POV of those experiencing ; research can not be separated from researcher bias

### Postpositivist Paradigm

rational, empiricist, value free & causal nature of what we observe can be concluded; prefer experimental design & random assignment

### Percentile Scores

refer to the percentage of cases in a norm sample who scored below an individual's score

### Standardized Tests

have instructions for uniform administration, procedures and norms & have been put through rigorous developmental cycles

### Meaning of p Values

Power-ability to detect deviations from the null hypothesis; ex. .5% chance will detect statistical significance if it is present

### Statistical Significance

of a magnitude rarely obtained by random sampling from populations for which the null hypothesis is true; probability that the difference in scores occurred because of reasons other than error

### Norm Referenced Tests

individuals performances can be compared with the norm group; results from 1 or more large samples with known characteristics

### ANOVA

analysis of variance- a test for the significance of differences among three of more means; parametric

### Linear Regression

defines a line of best fit for correlational data that can be used as a prediction equation

### clustered vs. distributed neurons

two binary choices that will decide between localizationist and holist positions; functionally homogeneous neurons are either one or the other

### shared vs. dedicated neurons

neurons perform duties 'across functions' or are solely devoted to a specific language function

### dependent variable

what you use to make measurements; i.e. words to write, read, etc. when studying aphasia

### independent variable

the results of what you are testing; errors and correct answer, how long it takes to answer correctly, etc. when studying aphasia

### functional architecture

box and arrow flowchart, not like neuroanatomy, based on a patient's performance on multi-related language tasks, from sensory input (visual/auditory) to output (written/spoken)

### event-related potentials

using scalp electrodes, small electrical responses to specific inputs can only be observed by averaging the EEG traces over a series of trials

### content words or "open class"

carry meaning; numerous; variable lengths; can add new ones to language; mainly consist of nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs

### function words or "closed class"

do not carry meanings by themselves; can't add new ones to language, usually small words (grammatical morphemes and endings); articles, conjunctions, prepositions, pronouns, quantifiers

### aggrammatism

Broca's aphasics show evidence for selective loss of closed class words while retaining open class

### fMRI

add blood volume flow analysis: oxygenated blood has different magnetic properties relative to de-oxygenated blood, hence bigger signal

### practice effects

practicing and repeating an experimental task can affect blood flow over a few trials. So test and control must have the same effect.

### Peterson study

by subtracting a "control state" from the current "stimulus state" one could isolate areas of activation related to mental operations present in the stimulus state, but not in the control state

### Conclusion.

A decision made by the researcher about whether the hypothesis was supported based on the results obtained in an experiment

### Confidentiality

the ethical principle whereby a professional does not disclose to others information n given in confidence to them by a client/patient. In research studies, personal information should only be collected if it is relevant to the study and can only be reported in such a way that subjects' identities are not revealed. If subjects are dissatisfied after debriefing, they can demand that their data is destroyed. (In therapeutic situations, the patient's consent is required before the practitioner can disclose any information of a personal nature. Exceptions to this occur in cases with minors where discussions are held with parents or in cases where the client threatens, either directly or through their behaviour, to cause harm to themselves or others, in which case the professional is obligated to attempt to prevent such an occurrence.)

### Confounding variable

An unwanted factor occurring in the procedures, experimenters or subjects in an experiment that has an effect on the dependent variable, along with or instead of the dependent variable.

### Control condition

A condition in an experiment used as a baseline or comparison with the experimental condition involving the treatment variable. Thus, subjects experiencing the control condition should be identical in characteristics and experience similar standardised conditions to those experiencing the experimental condition; however they should not experience the independent variable.

### Control Group

A group for which all conditions are identical to those of the experimental group except that participants are not exposed to the manipulation of the independent variable. This enables the researcher to determine whether the independent variable has affected the dependent variable.

### Controlled variables

A type of extraneous variable whose influence has been removed from the research via sampling, experimental method and/or statistical control.

### Convenience sampling

The process of selecting members of a population to participate in research who are easily obtainable. Examples include newspaper polls and radio station phone-ins, as well as approaching individuals in a shopping centre. Such a sample may not be representative of the population as individuals actively volunteering to participate in the study, or drawn from a narrow strata of the population, may be biased.

### Correlation

A statistical measure of the strength and direction of the relationship between two variables, events or measures that occur together so that changes in one are accompanied by changes in the other. It is not a causative measure, meaning that it does not explain the reason behind a relationship between two variables.

### Correlation coefficient

An indication of the strength and direction of a correlation between two variables. It ranges from -1.00, indicating a strong negative relationship to, + 1.00, indicating a strong positive relationship. 0.00 indicates no correlation. Furthermore, a correlation level of 0.05 is needed in order to consider a correlation as being moderately strong, an indication of statistical significance.

### Correlational method

A research method that identifies and describes the relationship between two variables, events or measures.

### Cross-sectional study

Research in which individuals of differing ages drawn from a representative sample are compared in a single study.

### Counterbalancing

Reversing the order of presentation for half the participants so that fatigue and practice effects occur in different orders to 'balance' their effects

### Debriefing

Feedback given to experimental subjects about the purposes and results of the research of which they were a part. Such feedback should remove any misconceptions caused by deception within the experimental design, and should provide results and interpretations to the participants. The aim is to ensure that subjects leave the experiment in as similar a state as possible as they entered it.

### Descriptive statistics

Statistics that describe or summarise the data and typically include a measure of central tendency and dispersion

### Dependent variable (DV)

A factor or characteristic of a subject's behaviour or experience that can be observed or measured as being changed in some way as a result of being manipulated by the independent variable. This measure is obtained to test the outcome of the experiment.

### Direct observation

A research method involving investigating overt or directly measurable behaviour through the process of watching and recording it as it occurs.

### Double-blind study

A test in which neither the experimenters or subjects are aware of which subjects have been allocated to the experimental group.

### Ethics

A set of moral principles and practices that have been used by psychologists to provide guidelines relating to what is acceptable conduct in terms of right or wrong that researchers follow when considering using humans or animals as research subjects.

### Experiment

-A method of data collection used to systematically measure the relationship between variables which have been operationalised in an hypothesis.

### Experimental condition

- The condition in an experiment which contains the presence of the independent variable.

### Experimental group

The subjects in an experiment who are allocated the independent variable which is changed or manipulated in order to observe its effects on their behaviour or experience.

### Experimenter bias

An unconscious expectation of the experimenter which may influence their observations of data.

### Experimenter effect

Occurs when the unconscious expectations, personal characteristics or treatment of the data by the experimenter may adversely affect the dependent variable which may bias the experimental results. This may occur when the experimental and control groups are treated differently.

### Extraneous variables

Any potential independent variable that is of no direct interest to the researcher, but may have an effect on the dependent variable. The two types of extraneous variables are controlled and uncontrolled variables.

### Generalisation

The applications of the conclusions based on the results obtained to other settings outside the study. Extending or applying the results for a sample more widely to the population from which the sample was drawn or another population

### Hawthorne effect

The notion that subjects who are aware that they are participants of an experiment may behave according to what they perceive to be the experimenter's expectations. The improved performance may be attributed to this factor, rather than the influence of the independent variable.

### Hypothesis

A testable predication that an independent variable(s) or treatment(s) will cause an effect on the dependent variable(s).

### Independent-groups design

A research design in which subjects are randomly allocated to groups and it is assumed that relevant variables are balanced between the groups. This makes it equally likely for an individual to be in the experimental or control group.

### Independent variable (IV)

The treatment variable (the factor or the characteristic) in an experiment that has been deliberately varied or systematically manipulated by the experimenter in order to measure whether it produced a change in the dependent variable, measured by a change in the subjects' behaviour or performance

### Inferential statistics

Statistics that use mathematical procedures to measure and make judgments about how likely it is that the results are obtained in an experiment came about by chance

### Informed consent

The process whereby an experimental subject is given all the necessary details in order to reach a decision to agree to being a part of an experiment. Such information should point out any potential risks that may be present in the research design.

### Integrity

A commitment by the researcher to the search for knowledge, to recognised principles for conducting research and in the honest and ethical conduct of research (including reporting)

### Justice

Ensuring the fair distribution of benefits and burdens with the population of interest and well as for any research participant

### Matched-subjects design

A research design involving the placement of equivalent pairs of subjects into each group, matched on relevant characteristics such as gender, intelligence scores, age. Subjects are paired on variables which, if not controlled, may have a confounding effect on the research.

### Median

When all scores in a set of measurements are arranged in order, the median is the middle score within the set.

### Mode

In a set of scores/measurements, the mode is the score that occurs most frequently. There may be more than one mode in any given set of scores.

### Negative correlation

Indicates that two variables share a relationship to one another which occurs in an opposite direction.' Thus, as one variable increases, the other variable decreases. For example, as the amount of study time increases, failure rate tends to decrease.

### Non-participant observation

- A scientific research method in which the researchers endeavour to conceal their presence when recording their observations.

### Null hypothesis.

- A testable prediction that there is no evidence that the treatment has an effect. Thus, any difference between the experimental and control groups is due to chance. If one rejects the null hypothesis, they accept the experimental hypothesis. One cannot accept the null hypothesis

### Objective data

Data that has been gathered using systematic observation which is not influenced by any personal bias.

### Observation

A scientific research method which involves watching and recording behaviour as it occurs in a clinical or naturalistic setting.

### Observer bias

The interference of an observer's personal expectations, motives and prior experience which detracts from the accuracy their research.

### Operational definition

The precise, comprehensive description of the concept to be measured in an experiment, and the procedures that will be utilised to measure that concept.

### Operational hypothesis

The expression of a hypothesis in terms of how the researcher will determine the presence and levels of the variables under investigation; that is, how the experimenter is going to put their hypothesis into operation.

### Opportunity sampling

Also called convenience sampling. Participants are selected from groups that are readily available

### Order effect

The potential impact on the results of the order in which an experimental task is completed by participants

### p value

The probability level which forms basis for deciding if results are statistically significant (not due to chance).

### Participant observation

A scientific research the study; analysing the data; communicating the method in which the researcher watches and records the behaviour to be observed while engaging in the activity themselves in the hope of being mistaken by the subjects as a member of the activity

### Participant allocation

Process of assigning participants to different groups (or conditions in a research study)

### placebo

A fake treatment often used in medical research in the form of sugar tablets or injections. It has no medical or pharmacological effects. It is often used as a control condition in experiments, to counter the effect of subjects knowing they have taken something.

### Placebo effect

Any observed change in functioning or behaviour that is 'caused' by a placebo, where there is a demonstrated difference between those taking the placebo treatment and those offered no treatment.

### Population

The entire group of individuals related to the problem of interest that the researcher is testing. A sample is drawn from the population

### Positive correlation

Indicates that two variables share a relationship to one another that occurs in the same direction. Thus, as one variable increases the other variable also tends to increase. For example, as the amount of exercise an individual performs increases, fitness level also tends to increase.

### Qualitative data

Factual or descriptive pieces of information about the qualities of the characteristics or behaviours being measured.

### Quantitative data

Numerical measures/values used to quantify, /describe the characteristics or behaviours being measured.

### Random assignment / allocation

The allocation of subjects to different groups in an experiment ensuring that each subject has an equal chance of being selected in any of the groups to be utilised.

### Random sampling

A form of allocating subjects from the population of interest to form part of the sample in such a manner that each member of the population has an equal chance to be selected. One method of doing this is using random number tables of selection. If the sample is of sufficient size, it is usually representative of the population.

### Range

the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a frequency distribution. The range is the simplest measure of variability.

### Repeated-measures design

One group undertakes both experimental conditions, the experimental condition and the control condition.

### Respect for persons

Proper regard by the researcher for the welfare, rights, beliefs, perceptions, customs and cultural heritage of all individuals involved in research.

### Sampling

The method used to select subjects for a study. Types of sampling include random sampling and stratified sampling.

### Scatter diagram (scattergram; scatterplot)

A graphical representation of the strength and the direction of the relationship between variables.

### Scientific method

A series of orderly steps on clearly defined goals, objectivity and to obtain empirical evidence. are: preparing the study; conducting research reporting findings; and replicating or repeating the study.

### Self-report measures

Forms of gaining data which rely on spoken or written responses to questions posed by the researcher. Examples include interviews, surveys and questionnaires.

### Single-blind study

An experiment in which subjects are unaware of the experimental or control condition to which they have been assigned. This reduces the likelihood of the Hawthorne effect occurring.

### Standard deviation

A measure of the variability of scores in a distribution indicating the average difference between the scores and their mean.

### Standardised instructions and procedures

Instructions and procedures used with all groups to make sure only the independent variable differs between them

### Statistically significant

When the likelihood of results (e.g. the difference in the mean scores for an experiment) being due to change factors is at an acceptably low level. In scientific research, a level of 0.05 significance is commonly used as a benchmark to gauge whether a difference obtained in the findings is truly due to the influence of the independent variable and not attributed to chance. A 0.05 significance level occurs when the probability of chance is 5 or fewer times in 100 repetitions of the research. Stricter probability values (p) of significance are sometimes employed, such as < 0.01 (less than 1 in 100); and p <0.001 (less than 1 in 1000).

### Statistical significance

The term used to indicate whether the results obtained in an experiment do not occur by chance and may therefore be the result to other variables.

### Stratified sampling

A method of subject selection used to attempt to prevent biases by making the sample more representative of the population. It involves identifying some of the factors (strata) present in the population such as age, sex, or income level and then selecting a separate sample from each stratum in the same proportions.

### Stratified random sampling

Sampling technique in which the population as a whole is divided into parts or 'strata' and each stratum has participants drawn from it.

### Subjective data

Data obtained by self-report measures in which subjects give verbal or written responses to a series of research questions.

### T test

A mathematical procedure that involves a comparison of the means of two groups or treatment conditions to establish statistical significance.

### Test of significance

A statistical test used to determine whether the mean scores of two groups differ significantly.

### Uncontrolled variables

Those variables that have influenced the result as their presence was not accounted for (and removed) in the experimental method. Uncontrolled variables which cause a change in the value of the dependent variable are termed 'confounding variables'.

### Variable

A factor pertaining to the property of an individual or object that can alter in amount or kind and can be measured.

### Voluntary participation

Where subjects become a part of an experiment because they choose to do so. This choice is often based on being provided with some information as to the purposes, nature and procedures involved in the research design

### Withdrawal rights

The right of experimental subjects to remove themselves from the research situation at any point they decide (such as when the experiment is seen by the subjects as causing too much personal discomfort or distress).

### Beneficence

The researchers responsibility to maximize the potential benefits of research and minimise the risks of harm or discomfort to all research participants

### Case study

An in-depth study of some particular behaviour or phenomenon of interest in a particular individual, group or situation.

### Examples of Secondary Authority

Legal Dictionaries, Treatises, Practice Guides, Form Books, Horn Books, Digests, Restatements, Legal Encyclopedias, Legal Periodicals, American Law Reports

### Horn Book

It is 1 volume, and used for instructional puposes only. It's intent is to give you a general overview of the law. Not something you can use for research.

### 3 Legal Encyclopedias

American Jurisprudence 2nd Edition, Texas Jurisprudence 3rd edition & Corpus Juris Secundum

### Types of Primary Authority

Case Opinions, Statutes, Codes, Agency Regulations, Constitutions, Ordinances, Treaties

### There are 6 reporters

United States Reporters, Supreme Court Reporter, United States Supreme Court Reports, Federal Reporter, Federal Supplement, South Western Reporter

### 3 Supreme Court Reporters

Untied States Reports, Supreme Court Reporter, United States Supreme Court Reports

### Doctrine of Precedent

doctrine that requires a court to follow the law established in a prior decision, unless good cause exists to change it

### In order to determine when a court will have to follow something or not, you break it down into

Patterns

### The 4 Patterns are

The case and the court are in the same jurisdiction, One state does not have to follow what aother state did, Does state court have to follow a federal case, does federal court have to follow a state case

### The case and the court are in the same jurisdiction

ask yourself if the case came from a higher court, if yes, you must follow.

### Two different states, do not have to follow what each other says

Exceptions: Conflicts of Law or Full Faith and Credit

### Does state court have to follow a federal case

generally no Exceptions: when there is a federal question (involves us Constitution)

### Does a federal court have to follow a state case

generally no Exceptions: When they are required to interpret state law

### Concurring Opinion is written by?

written by a person that agrees with the result, but for different reasons

### ways laws can change

legislature can amend existing statutes or enact a new statute, court can apply its own interpretation to an existing statute or they can make law where there is no statute, supreme court can declare something unconstitutional

### Confidentiality

Where the results of an experiment are not disclosed to other participants or the participants' details remain anonymous when reporting on the experiment

### Confounding Variable

A variable that is uncontrolled and allowed to change together with the IV, thereby having an unwanted effect on the DV

### Control Group

The group of participants that is not exposed to the IV providing a standard against which the experimenter can compare the performance of the experimental group

### Convenience Sampling

A group that is selected for an investigation from a population that is first encountered when sampling

### Debriefing

Where the experimenter informs the participant of the purpose of the investigation at the conclusion of the research, including correcting any mistaken beliefs

### Dependent Variable

A variable which shows any effects of the IV; the observed or measured response of the participants

### Descriptive Statistics

Used to analyse, summarise, organise and describe important features of data so they can be further interpreted

### Double-blind procedure

An experimental procedure where both the experimenter and participant are unaware of the experimental conditions

### Experiment

A research methods used to test a hypothesis under controlled conditions in order to measure effects of an IV on a DV

### Experimenter Effect

When the experimenter's personal characteristics, actions or treatment of data affect the accuracy of results

### Experimental Design

An experiment's specific procedures for data collection, particularly the types of groups used - independent groups, matched participants & repeated measures

### Extraneous Variables

Any variable other than the IV that can cause change in the DV and therefore affect results in an unwanted way

### Generalisation

Applying the results for a sample more widely to the population from which the sample was drawn

### Hawthorne Effect

If participants are aware they are part of an experimental group they may simply improve because of that fact

### Operational Hypothesis

A prediction of how the variables being studied will be manipulated, observed and measured as well as the population from which the sample was taken

### Independent Groups Design

An experimental design in which each participant is randomly allocated to one of two or more entirely separate groups

### Independent Variable

A variable which is manipulated or varied by the experimenter in order to measure its effect on the DV

### Inferential Statistics

Statistics used to make judgements about whether the results for a sample would be the same for the population - how likely the results occurred by chance

### Informed Consent

Participants are made aware of the nature and purpose of the investigation beforehand and usually involves signed a consent form

### Matched Participants Design

An experimental design that involves selection of pairs of participants who are similar in a characteristic that can influence the DV, then allocating each member of the pair to a different group

### Null Hypothesis

A predicted where there is no relationship between variable being studied - it is made to be disproved

### p value

A probability value that shows the statistical level at which chance is likely to have operated on the results obtained from research

### Placebo Effect

When a participant's response is changed by their belief that they are receiving some kind of experimental treatment as opposed to change caused by the actual experimental treatment

### Positive Correlation

Relationship between two variables in which a high rank on one is accompanied by a high rank on the other

### Random Allocation

A procedure for assigning participants to the various groups in an experiment which ensures that participants have an equal chance of selection to each group

### Random Sampling

The procedure for selecting a group of participants from a population that ensures each member has an equal chance of being chosen

### Repeated Measures Design

An experimental design which uses the same participants in both the experimental and control groups

### Representative Sample

The selected group must represent the individual differences that exist in the population.

### Sample

A study group which is selected from the population for allocation to the experimental and control groups

### Scientific Method

A series of orderly steps which are followed in conducting and reporting scientific research

### Single-blind procedure

A procedure in an experiment to ensure participants are not aware of the group to which they have been allocated

### Statistically Significant

When the likelihood of results being due to chance is at an acceptably low level (p<0.05)

### Stratified Sample

A procedure that involves diving the population to be sampled into distinct groups (or strata) then selecting a sample from each stratum

### Voluntary Participation

Participants are not placed under any pressure or coercion to participate in the investigation

### Withdrawal Rights

The experimenter informs the participants that they are free to participate, decline or withdraw from the research at any time without reason should they wish to do so

### null hypothesis

hypothesis that states there is no difference between two or more sets of data making it opposite of the research hypothesis

### single-blind procedure

procedure in which info that could introduce bias the result is withheld from participants, but experimenter will be in full possession of facts

### confounding of variables

when two variables are linked together in a way that makes it difficult to sort out their specific effects.

### quasi-experiment

researchers takes subjects & conditions as they naturally occur, with little if any control over what happens.

### cross-sectional research

people of different ages are compared to one another at a single point in time

### longitudinal research

research in which the same people are re-studied and re-tested over a long period

### test-retest reliability

if you take the same test 2x's & you get the same results it shows ______ reliability

### alternate form reliability

A type of reliability, where different versions of same instrument are used and scores are compared

### split half reliability

A test is divided into 2 halves and scores on the halves are compared to see if test is consistent within itself. Ex. compare odds & evens

### inter-rater reliability

More than one individual scores same test, regardless of who rates test - scores should be the same for _____ reliability

### construct validity

Extent to which scores suggest that a test is actually measuring an ABSTRACT theoretical idea (such as anxiety, personality, introversion, etc.).

### criterion validity

form of validity in which a psychological measure is able to predict some future behavior or is meaningfully related to some other measure

### face validity

measures whether a test looks like it tests what it is supposed to test as determined by a quick look or evaluation by a non expert

### nominal data

data of categories only. Data cannot be arranged in an ordering scheme. (Gender, Race, Religion)

### ordinal data

data exists in categories that are ordered but differences cannot be determined or they are meaningless. (Example: 1st, 2nd, 3rd)

### interval data

differences between values can be found, but is NO absolute ZERO. Examples: temperature F, time

### Historiography

A study of the procedures that different historians use in their research; also a study of the changing revisions and interpretations of the past.

### Grounded theory

Qualitative procedures that are used to develop detailed concepts or conditional propositions for situations; also, summaries of facts.

### Ex post facto research

Research that investigates events that have already occurred and implies a cause-and-effect relationship from the results.

### Emergent design

A research plan in which each step depends on the results of the field data obtained in the previous step.

### Descriptive research

Refers to research that describes an existing or past phenomenon in quantitative terms.

### Case study

Qualitative research that examines a bounded system over time in detail, employing multiple sources of data found in the setting.

### Basic research

Research that tests or refines theory; not designed to be applied immediately to practice.

### Action research

studies undertaken by practitioners in schools that address an actual problem or issue in the school or classroom.

### Secondary Research

Using existing and more qualitative research that has to do with...archival research, reference books, computer databases, and online searches.

### copy testing

when the target audience is asked to read or view the material in draft form before it is mass-produced and distributed.

### ethnographic technique

an anthropology approach to conduct research through observation of group behavior

### random sample (aka probability sample)

everyone in the target audience (as defined by the researcher) has an equal or known chance of being selected for the survey.

### non-probability sample

i.e. mall-intercept interviews. NOT random at all. Different people are present at different times

### advocacy research

research that is done by organizations who send out surveys w/ questions that use highly charged words that elicit an emotional reaction from the respondent

### benchmarking

when companies use software programs to track and monitor a client's reputation almost on a daily basis

### courtesy bias

when respondents often choose answers they think are "politically correct" or what the sponsor wants to hear

### mail questionnaires

(1) researchers have more control of who gets them. (2) large geographic areas can be covered economically. (3) less expensive to use a paper-base. (4) large #s of people can be reached at minimal cost

### telephone surveys

(1) feedback is immediate (2) more personal form of comm. (3) less intrusive than door-2-door. (4) response rate can be higher

### omnibus surveys (piggyback survey)

when an organization "buys" 1 or 2 questions in a national survey conducted by a national polling firm

### Web/E-mail surveys

(1) large samples in short amount of time (2) more economical than mail or questionnaires (3) data can be analyzed continually

### Qualitative Research

research that is good for probing attitudes and perceptions, assessing penetration of messages, and testing messages

### Quantitative Research

research that involves polls and surveys using highly precise scientific sampling methods

### positive correlation

correlation where as one variable increases, the other also increases, or as one decreases so does the other. Both variables move in same direction.

### correlational study

research project designed to discover degree to which two variables are related to each other

### z score

in a normal distribution it tells you how far a number is above or below mean in terms of standard deviations.

### positive (right) skew

skewed distribution where data has many more scores toward the lower end of the distribution

### negative (left) skew

skewed distribution with many more scores on the higher end of the distribution

### operational definition

statement that describes how to measure a particular variable or define a particular term specifically in a study

### random assignment

Assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to different groups.

### stratified sample

sample drawn in such a way that known subgroups within a population are represented in proportion to their numbers in general population

### experimenter bias

expectations by researcher that might influence results of experiment or its interpretation

### correlation coefficient

statistical measure of strength of association between two variables ranging from -1.0 to 1.0

### CINAHL database

covers references to virtually all English-language nursing and allied health journals, as well as to books, book chapters, dissertations, and selected conference proceedings

### literature review

critical summary of research on topic, often prepared to put research problem in context or to summarize existing evidence

### MEDLINE database

developed by US National Library of Medicine and is widely recognized as premier source for bibliographic coverage of biomedical literature; covers about 5,000 medical, nursing, and health journals published in about 70 countries and contains more than 16 million records dating back to mid 1960s; abstracts of reviews from Cochrane Collaboration are also available

### primary source

first hand reports of facts or findings; in research, original report prepared by investigator who conducted study

### secondary source

second hand accounts of events or facts; in research, description of study prepared by someone other than original researcher

### accessible population

population of ppl available for particular study--often nonrandom subset of target population

### cluster sampling

form of sampling in which large groupings ("clusters") are selected first (eg nursing schools), with successive subsampling of smaller units (eg nursing students)

### consecutive sampling

recruitment of all ppl from accessible population who meet eligibility criteria over specific time interval or for specified sample size

### data saturation

collection of qualitative data to point where sense of closure is attained because new data yield redundant info

### eligibility criteria

criteria designating specific attributes of target population, by which ppl are selected for inclusion in study

### maximum variation sampling

sampling approach used by qualitative researchers involving purposeful selection of cases with wide range of variation

### nonprobability sampling

selection of sampling units (eg ppl) from population using nonrandom procedures (eg convenience and quota sampling)

### nonresponse bias

bias that can result when nonrandom subset of ppl invited to participate in study decline to participate

### population

entire set of individuals or objects having some common characteristics (eg all RNs in New York); sometimes called universe

### power analysis

procedure for estimating either needed sample size for study or likelihood of committing Type II error

### probability sampling

selection of sampling units (eg participants) from population using random procedures (eg simple random sampling)

### purposive sampling

nonprobability sampling method in which researcher selects participants based on personal judgment about who will be most informative; also called judgmental sampling

### quota sampling

nonrandom sampling method in which "quotas" for certain sample characteristics are established to increase representativeness of sample

### response rate

rate of participation in study, calculated by dividing number of some individuals to respond to items in characteristic ways (eg always agreeing) independently of item content

### sample size

number of subjects in sample, major issue in conducting and evaluating quantitative research

### sampling bias

distortions that arise when sample is not representative of population from which it was drawn

### sampling error

fluctuation of value of statistic from one sample to another drawn from one sample to another drawn from same population

### simple random sampling

basic probability sampling involving selection of sample members from sampling frame through completely random procedures

### snowball sampling

selection of participants through referrals from earlier participants; also called network sampling

### stratified random sampling

random selection of study participants from two or more strata of population independently

### systematic sampling

selection of sample members such that every kth (every 10th) person or element in sampling frame is chosen

### target population

entire population in which researcher is interested and to which he or she would like to generalize study results

### theoretical sampling

in qualitative studies, selection of sample members based on emerging findings to ensure adequate representation of important theoretical categories

### Dichotomous

A property or variable for which the units are classified into just one of two categories

### Hypothesis

A statement asserting that specific variation in one property results in or causes specific variation in the property we are seeking to explain.

### Causal association

Variation in the independent property tends to cause directly or indirectly variation in the dependent variable

### Professional literature

Books, publications, or journals with regular research; the primary source of explanations for more empirical research

### Literature review

A detailed discussion of how your research fits into the existing body of research on the subject

### Replication

The retesting of hypotheses to see whether they are confirmed with different unit of analysis (justified)

### Reliable

It must yield the same results in the same circumstances the same way, regardless of who does the measuring

### Likert scaling

question with the high number always indicating that more of the property being measured is present

### Indicators of central tendency

reflect the middle, central, or most common value in a distribution: mode, mean, and median

### Indicators of dispersion

indicates the extent to which the values of the units are spread out or concentrated together: variation and standard deviation

### Variance

computed by finding the difference from each value and the mean for category; then squaring and averaging those differences

### Uniform distributions

the cases are distributed more or less evenly across the range of categories, may have no modal areas

### Left-skewed (negative)

mean is lower than the median; outlying cases are lower than the midpoint of the distribution

### Right-skewed (positive)

mean is greater than the median; the outlying cases are higher than the midpoint of the distribution

### Stratum

a subgroup of the theoretical population that has some identifying characteristics in common

### Cross-sectional analysis

if the independent property is measured for different units at a given point in time then the units that differ with regard to the independent variable will tend to differ in a specified manner with respect to the dependent

### Longitudinal analysis

if the independent property is measured for different point in time then the units that differ with regard to the independent variable will tend to differ in a specified manner with respect to the dependent

### Meta-Analysis

A research procedure that uses statistical techniques to synthesize the results of prior independently conducted studies.

### Mixed method

Refers to a study that combines qualitative and quantitative techniques and/or data anaylsis within different phases of the research process.

### Oral history

A form of historical research in which individuals' spoken words and testimonies about the past are recorded.

### Qualitative research

a type of research that refers to in-depth study using face-to-face or observation techniques to collect data from people in their natural settings.

### Quantitative research

A research paradigm in which objective data are gathered and analyzed numerically.

### Replication

A study that duplicates the findings of a prior study using different participants, settings, or techniques.

### Survey research

The use of a questionnaire or interview to assess the current opinions, beliefs, and attitudes of members of a known population.

### Questionnaire

a document containing questions and other types of items designed to solicit information appropriate for analysis. Used primarily in survey research but also in experiments, field research, and other modes of observation

### Open-ended questions

questions for which the respondent is asked to provide his or her own answers. In-depth qualitative interviewing relies almost exclusively on open-ended

### Close-ended questions

survey questions in which the respondent is asked to select an answer from among a list provided by the researcher. These are popular in survey research because they provide a greater uniformity of responses and are more easily processed

### Bias

that quality of a measurement device that tends to result in a misprepresentation, in a particular direction, of what is being measured

### Contingency Question

A survey question intended for only some respondents, determined by their responses to some other question. p279 for example

### Response Rate

the number of people participating in a survey divided by the number selected in the sample, in the form of a percentage. Also called Completion Rate or, in self-administered surveys, the Return Rate: the percentage of questionnaires sent out that are returned.

### Interview

a data-callection encounter in which one person asks questions of another. May be conducted face-to-face or bu telephone.

### Probe

a technique employed in interviewing to solicit a more complete answer to a question. It is a nondirective phrase or question used to encourage a respondent to elaborate on an answer. Ex. "Anything more?" and "How is that?"

### Secondary Analysis

a form of research in which the data collected and processed by one researcher are reanalyzed by another. Especially appropriate in the case of survey data.

### face validity

idea that a test shoud appear to any person to be a test of what it is supposed to test

### content validity

a test should sample the range of the behaviour that is represented by the theoretical concept being tested

### criterion validity

idea that a test should correlate with other measures of the same theoretical construct

### construct validity

a test that the measurements actually measure the constructs they are designed to measure but no others

### error variance

variability in the dependent variable that is not associated with the dependent variable

### nominal measurement

similarities and differences. classifies objects or events into categories same event get same number

### ordinal measurement

ranks objects/events inorder of their magnitude. the position of the numbers on the scale must represent the rank order of the psychological attributes of the object

### interval measurement

one in which the differences between the numbers on the scale are meaningful. equal differences between the numbers on the scale must represent equal differences between the event or objects

### ratio measurement

one that has a meaningful 0 point as well as meaningful differences btw the numbers on the scale. the ratios btw the numbers on the scale must represent the ratios btw the evnts/objects

### internal validity

extent to which a study provides evidence of a cause-effect relationship btw the independent and dependent variable

### manipulation check

aspect of an experiement designed to make certain that varible have changed in the way that was intended

### external validity

how well the findings of an experiment generalize to other situatons or populations; different subjects, settings, times, etc

### statistical validity

extent to which data are shown to be he result of cause-effect relationships rather than accident

### threats to validity

events outside the laboratory, maturation, effects of testing, regression effect, selection, mortality

### threats to construct validity

loose connection between the theory and method, ambiguous effect of independent variable

### cause and effect relationships

They are determined by manipulating the independant variable, measuring the dependant variable, and controlling all other variables

### within subjects design

Research done where conditions are tested within individual subjects and each subject recieves every manipulation

### non-experimental research

Research that looks at variables by comparing different groups of scores and uses less manipulation of variables than experimental research

### quasi-experimental research

Research with a more reasonable level of control in comparison to experimental and may even require no manipulation at all

### measurement validity

It asks if the measurement procedures actually measure what you intend to measure

### confounding variables

They make the independant variable and dependant variable relationship unclear

### obscuring variables

They are factors which make changes in the dependant variable hard to observe and also cause increased measurement error and more noise in the data

### latency scale

A scale which records the amount of time between an instruction and when the behaviour is atually performed

### confounded variable

Is the result of the independant variable being manipulated and cannot be separtated from the results

### branching items

answer different question sets based on prior answers ex drinking portion on a health questionnaire

### quota sampling

population numerical composition is maintained. data collected haphardly. ex study males in caf

### cluster sample

groupings from a larger population. ex. 1/10 of student of every class... not 1/10 of every class

### non-experimental research

attempts to descrie variables. looks at variables as they exist naturally, identify correlations btw variables by comparing

### Quasi- experimental research

aim to define cause-effect relationships, fails to manipulate independent variable, often compares pre-existing groups(factory in ottawa vs. one in toronto)

### Matching

pre-test ppts on an important(potentially confounding) variable so that it can be controlled for

### nuisance variables

potential confounds that can't be easily removed so made as IV as a means of control

### Systematic replication

based on an extensionof theory, most common type, ex if this theory is correct the following should happen

### direct replication

the same experiment is repeated, uncommon, only happens if systematic replication fails

### mutually exclusive

categories defined so that membership to one rules out membership to other. ex cant be both graduate and under grad student

### multistage sampling

a form of cluster sampling in whcih clisters are further broken down by taking samples from each cluster

### order effects

changes in a subjects performance resulting fromthe postion in which a condition appears in an experiment

### sequence effects

changes in a subjects performance resulting from interactions among the conditions themselves

### counterbalancing

controlling for order and sequence effects by arranging that subjects experience the various conditions in differeent orders

### block randomization

control procedure in wich the order of conditions is randomized but with each condition being presented once before any condition is repeated

### reverse counter balancing

method of control in which conditions are presented in order the first time and then in reverse order

### latin square

control procedure in which each subject experiences each condition in a different order from other subjects

### multiple conditions design

compare several variables/treatments for effectiveness, not usually yes/no questions, subjects experience all conditions

### one group posttest only design

research design that measures the behaviour of a single group of subjects after they are given a treatment, threats to validity uncontrollable

### one group pretest postest design

measures the behavious of a single group of subjects both before and after treatment, know the behavious change, may be considered a quasi experiment

### A-B Design

2 phase experimental design consisting of a pre-treatment baseline condition (A) followed by a treatment condition (B),

### A-B-A Design

3-phase design consisting of initial baseline phase (A) until steady state (B) implemented until behavior has changed and steady state, return to baseline (A) by withdrawing IV (B)",

### A-B-A-B Design

A-B-A design with addition of second intervention phase to see if initial treatment effects are replicated

### multielement design

Design in which baseline period is followed by a second phase in which 2 IVs are administered, and the more effective IV is continues to phase 3

### A-B Design

2 phase experimental design consisting of a pre-treatment baseline condition (A) followed by a treatment condition (B),

### A-B-A Design

3-phase design consisting of initial baseline phase (A) until steady state (B) implemented until behavior has changed and steady state, return to baseline (A) by withdrawing IV (B)

### A-B-A-B Design

A-B-A design with addition of second intervention phase to see if initial treatment effects are replicated,

### Baseline

Condition of an experiment in which IV is not present; data obtained during baseline is basis for determining effects of IV.

### Changing Criterion Design

Design in which baseline is followed by phases of successive and gradually changing criteria

### Continuous Measurement

Measurement conducted so that all instances of the response class are detected during the observation period

### Discontinous Measurement

Any form of measurement in which some instances of the response class may not be detected

### Dependent Variable

The variable in an experiment measured to determine if it changes as a result of manipulations of the IV

### Event Recording

Documents individual occurrences of a response or stimulus during an observation period

### Experiment

Comparison of some measure of the DV under 2 or more different conditions in which the IV differs from one condition to another

### Experimental Control

When a predictable change in the DV can be produced by the systematic manipulation of the IV

### Experimental Design

Type and sequence of conditions in a study so that comparisons of the effects of the presence and absence of the IV can be made

### Functional Relation

When a change in the DV is produced by systematic manipulations of the IV and the change unlidely to be result of other extraneous variables

### Independent Variable

The variable that is systematically manipulated to see whether changes in the IV produce reliable changes in the DV

### Inter observer agreement

When 2 or more observers report the same observed values after measuring the same event

### Irreversibility

When the level of responding in a previous phase cannot be reproduced even thought conditions are the same

### Partial Interval Recording

Observation is divided into brief time intervals; observer records whether target behavior occurs at ANY TIME during interval

### Permanent Product

Measuring a behavior after it occurred by measuring it's effects on the environment

### Replication

Repeating of experiments to determine the reliability and usefulness of findings and determine mistakes

### Reversal Design

Design in which to verify the effect of the IV by reversing responding to a level in a previous level

### Social Validity

The extent to which target behaviors are socially appropriate and the extent to which significant changes are produced

### Validity

Extent to which data from measurement are relevant to the target behavior and to the reason for measuring it

### Withdrawal design

Design in which an effective treatment is withdrawn to promote maintenance of behavior

### least squares method

a method of calculating the line of best fit using the distance each point is from the line of best fit

### Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient

a measure of how well the regression equation fits the data

### If we use knowledge of SAT scores to predict his or her GPA. wHAT IS THE PREdicTOR AND WHAT IS THE CRITERION?

sat IS PREDICTOR AND GPA IS CRITERION

### If we can claim to account for .65 of the vvariance in Y scores by knowing a relationship, it means that?

We are on average, 65% more accurate at predicting Y' scores than we would be if we did not know the relationship.

### In general, the greater the proportion of variance accounted for...

the more accurately we can predict the behaviour

### If heterodasticity is present Sy' will be?

greater than the actual average error in predictions of Y for some scores and less than the actual average error for other X scores

### The regression line can be thought of as a series of points representing?

all the possible Y' values associated with all possible X scores

### Standard error of the mean is defined as?

Average spread of actual Y scores around the predicted Y scores

### Linear regression is defined as the procedure for determining?

the best-fitting straight line in a linear relationship

### When we square hte correlation coefficient to produce r2, the result is equal to the?

proportion of variance accounted for

### The Y-intercept of a line is the?

value of Y at the point where the regression line crosses the Y axis

### Suppose you have several different predictor variables and one criterion variable. all your variables are measured using interval or rations scales. What is the appropriate statistical test to use?

Multiple regression

### We should always draw a scatterplot of the data when we compute a correlation because hte scatterplot allows us to?

see the nature of the relationship between the two variables

### When your scale correlates with other procedures or scales that are valid, it has__________ validity ?

Convergent

### When your scale does not correlate with other unrelated procedures or scales it has ________validity?

discriminant

### When the relationship between two variables is high (for example, r=.98) the variability in the Ys at each X is ____________ realtive to the overall variability of Y scores in the sample.

smaller

### In general, a positive linear relationship means that?

as the values of one variable increase, there is a tendency for the values of the other variable to also increase.

### Suppose you find a restriction of range in your study of IQ scores and school achievement at school. Restricting the range is likely to _____ the correlation coefficient.

decrease the size of

### Whe consistency of participants responses to the same test at two different times determines?

test-retest reliability

### The consistency of participant response on different versions of the same test determines?

split-half reliability

### If we plot a scatterplot, and the data points form a shape that appears to be random dots and is far from forming a slanted straight line as possible, the correlation for the data is?

0.0: there is no relationship

### THe defining formula for the Pearson correlation coefficient shows that it is the?

average correspondence of paired X and Y z-scores

### What procedure would be used to find out whether there is a relationship between SAT scores and GPA?

The Pearson correlation coefficient

### In general a positive relaitonship means that?

As one variable increases the other variable also increases

### We should always draw a scatterplot of the data when we compute a correlation because it alows us to see?

the nature of the relationship between the two variables

### As the variability--differences--in Y scores at each X become larger, the relationship does what?

becomes weaker and results in a smaller correlation coefficient

### The larger the correlation coeficient (whether pos. or neg.), the stronger the relationship. Why?

The less the Ys are spread out at each X and the closer the data come to forming a straight line

### What is another word for the degree of efficeincy in a relationship?

coefficient although it DOES NOT directly measure units of consistency

### Define the purpose of computing a correlation coefficient.

Statistical technique for demonstrating the reliability and the validity of a measurement procedure in any experiment or correlational design.

### What are the types of reliability that a correlation coefficient is used to show?

test-retest, inter-rater, split-half

### test-retest reliability

Test in which participants receive the same score when tested at different times

### Face validity

Procedure is valid because it looks valid/Extent to which a measurement procedure appears to measure what it was intended to measure

### Convergent Validity

Extent to which scores obtained from one procedure are positively correlated with scores obtained from another procedure that is already accepted

### Discriminant validity

Extent to which scores obtained from one procedure are not correlated with scores from another procedure that measures OTHER variables or constructs.

### Define the Pearson correlation coefficient

Corelation coeffieccient that describes the strength and type of a linear relationship between interval and ratio variables, symbolized by r.

### Define the Spearman Rank order coefficient

The correlation coefficient that describes the linear relationship between pairs of ranked scores (ex: any two ordinal variables OR tied rank variables, symbolized by Rs

### Tied rank variables

occcurs when two aprticipants receive the same ranking score in SPearman's rank coefficient, resolved by averaging the score and assigning it to both participant to correlate their scores.

### Point biserial correlation coefficient

Describes the linear relationship between the scores from one continuous variable and one dichotomous variable (ex: correlating male/female with interval scores from a personality test).Can be used for one continuous interval or ration and one dichotomous, symbol is Rpb.

### How does a restricted range affect a correlation coefficient?

reduces the accuracy, producing a smaller coefficient than if hte range were not restricted and leads to an underestimate of the degree of association between the two variables. Avoiding this increases power.

### Why is the correlation coefficient important?

It is one number that allows us to envision and summarize the important information in a scatterplot, in terms of it's strength and direction.

### The smaller the absolute value of the coefficient, the greater the ?

variability of the Ys at each X, the vertical width of the scatterplot, and the less accurately Y scores can be predicted from X

### How can the power of a correlational design be increased?

Minimizing error variance and avoiding a restricted range, so that thelargest possible coefficient is obtained.

### If it passes through the proper inferential procedure, a sample correlation coefficient is used to estimate what?

the corresponding population correlation coefficient: r=p,Rs estimates Ps, Rpb estimates Ppb.

### Define linear regression

THe statistical procedure for using a relationship to predict scores aka the statistic that summarizes the linear relationship.It produces the line that summarzes the relationship

### What does the symbol Y' stand for

a predicted Y score. Our best prediction of the Y score at a corresponding X

### Define regression line

straight line that summarizes the linear relationship in a scatterplot by,on average, passing through the center of the Y scores at each X and it consists of the predicted Y score-the Y'-for every possbile X

### What is the importance of linear regression?

It is used to predict a individual's unknown Y score based on his/her X score from a correlated variable. Usually more external validity and more accurate description of the relationship.USed to predict unknown Y scores based on X scores from correlated variable.

### Linear regression equation [(b)(x) + a]

equation that creates the straight line by producing a value of Y' at each X, define sthe line that summarzies the relationship. Describes it's slope and Y intercept.

### SEE (Sy) is acronym for

Standard error of estimate which is the standardized difference between predicted Y' and actual Y scores

### How do you calculate proportion of variance accounted for?

r2 which is also known as "coefficient of determination"

### When r=0, the standard erro of the estimate is at it's max. and that is equal to?

the standard deviation of all Y scores in the sample (Sy)

### What does the equation r2 aka coefficient of determination aka proortion of variance indicate?

How important the realtionship is by comparing amount of error obtained using the regression equation for XY to errors without the regression equation for XY

### what does Sy2 refer too?

Describes the error variance when using regressinon to predict Y scores, measures error in prediction.

### Sr' definitional formula/average error

subtract Y' from Y and square each deviation/divide by N then find hte square root of that to get the error of the estimate

### proportion of variance

is the amount we reduce errors in predicting Y scores when we use the relationship, compared too if we did not. Equals r2

### The differences (and error) between Y and Y' is also summarized by what?

the variance of the Y scores around Y' (S2y)

### If there is a large R there is a week or strong relationship?

stronger the relationship and a small value of Sy and S2y, because the Y scores are closer to Y', thus the smaller difference between Y and Y'

### heteroscedasticity

An unequal spread of Y scores around the regression line (that is around the values of Y')

### Percentage crosstables

When there are few (2-3) categories to the dependent variable, one uses a percentage crosstable (calculated down, read across)

### Comparisons of central tendency

4-5 categories of the DV, one uses a comparison of central tendency - a table showing the mean or median value of Y for each category of X

### Correlation coefficient

Indicates the strength and direction displayed in a table - (positive, negative) summarizes the findings of each table in a single number

### Marginals

the crosstables' showing of the number (N) of cases in each column (the number the percentages are based on) and perhaps each row

### Correlation coefficients

dealt with after comparisons of central tendency, not as easily understood to the reader, summarizes the strength and direction displayed in a table (phi, Somer's d, Tavb, Tauc, and Gamma)

### Zero association

the X and Y values are paired in such a way that knowing the X value of a unit is no help in predicting its Y value - statistically independent

### Phi

used for summarizing bivariate (2*2) tables - it is a special case of correlation coefficient for interval variables calculated: (ad-bc)/√(a+b)(a+c)(c+d)(b+d)

### Tests of significance

test that tell us how likely it is that an association as strongly supportive as the one observed in a sample would be found when no supportive association exists in the population (showing it's not by chance) - can tell the odds are very small

### Sampling error

the distributions in samples are likely to be somewhat different from the distributions in the theoretical population (±4%)

### Level of statistical significance

it is reported as a proportion indicating the maximum probability of incorrectly finding that an association exists (.05 level = 5 chances out of 100)

### Known sampling distribution

statisticians have already determined the likelihood of getting each value when samples with given characteristics are drawn from a population in which there is no association (X2, t, z, and F)

### One-tail test

any test of significance in which the direction of association is hypothesized in advance, and only an association in that direction can be statistically significant - indicates the probability that an association as strongly supportive of the hypothesis would have occurred by chance in a sample drawn from a population in which there was no association - test hypotheses

### Two-tail test

a test of significance in which an association in either direction can be statistically significant - test exploratory research

### Chi square x2

use for percentage difference, tables with 2*2, and difference between medians - values indicate how unlikely it is that the observed sample results came from a theoretical population with no association between X and Y

### Degrees of freedom (df)

reflect the number of cells in the table: (number of rows - 1)(number of columns - 1)

### Sum of Squares Within (SSw)

gained when calculated the variance - it is the sum of the squared deviations for each X category

### Sum of Squares Between (SSb)

calculated from the squared deviations of the means for each X category about the mean for the whole sample - N1(mean - mean for entire sample)2 + N2 (mean - mean for the entire sample)2

### Asymptotic standard error

a measure similar to standard deviation , measures how much dispersion one would expect in correlation coefficients - no association

### Controlling

required for associations to be proved causal, controls for the effects that other variables have on the association

### Intervening variables

variables caused by the IV, they intervene in a causal sequence between the IV and DV

### Experimental research

research in which the scientists determine the amount or level of the independent variable to which each unit is exposed (rarely used)

### Pearson's r

summarizes the relationship of several things - measures the extent to which the Y values of units can be estimated from the X values of those units by using an equation of the type: Y′ = a + bX - a = intercept value / X = variable / b = coefficient slope (the explanation)

### Linear association

what r measures the extent of between X and Y (dots closer to the line - higher number / farther dots - low number)

### Regression coefficient (slope)

the one that multiplies times the X value , the amount by which Y is estimated to increase/decrease for each increase of 1 in the value of X)

### Intercept

the constant that is added to or subtracted from the multiple of X - the point where the regression line crosses the Y axis - it is the value if X were zero, Y would be it (a)

### Residual

the difference between a Y value estimated from the regression equation and the actual Y value for each unit - the lower the values of r, the larger the residuals will be

### R2 and adjusted r2

virtually the same if the sample is 50 or larger, tells us how much of the variance in Y in the sample was explained by X (same as proportion of explained variance)

### Bibliography

a complete or selective list of works complied upon some common principle, as authorship, or subject

### Boolean search

searching the web or databases using limiting or expanding Boolean terms, including AND, NOT or OR

### Hanging Indent

in citation entries, the first line flush with the margin, each consecutive line is indented 1/2 inch

### Primary source

information directly from someone involved in an event (diaries, lab results, newspaper reports from the time)

### Scholarly source

contains the work of experts & academics in a given field, circulated to a limited, expert audience

### Paraphrase

using material from a source in your own words & sentence structures, points are in the order the original author presents them

### Summarize

a significantly shortened version of source material that captures main ideas in your own words

### Voice marker

phrases indicating whether the writer of the paper is speaking, or if they are using outside source materal

### Parenthetical citation

MLA in text- citation typically consisting of the source author's name & a pg. no. or in the case of no author, a key word from the title

### Accidental sampling

non-probability design in which you use the most readily available persons as subjects. May use snowball sampling. Most commonly used because its convenient and least costly.

### Quota sampling

non-probability design in which you identify a significant extraneous variable and use accidental sampling to select a predetermined number of subjects from each strata

### Purposive sampling

non-probability design in which you handpick subjects on the basis of personal judgment about their representativeness.

### Probability sampling designs

simple random sampling, stratified random sampling, cluster sampling, systematic sampling

### Simple random sampling

probability design in which a table of random numbers is used to draw a sample from the population.

### Stratified random sampling

probability design in which you identify a significant extraneous variable and randomly select a predetermined number of subjects from each stratum.

### Cluster sampling

probability design in which large groupings or clusters are randomly selected first with successive random sub-sampling of smaller units. Most commonly used for large-scale surveys because it is more economical and practical. Contains more sampling errors

### Systematic sampling

probability design in which you select the every Kth case from a list. It may not be random if the list is arranged so certain types of elements are listed at particular intervals.

### equation to determine the sampling interval width (k)

estimated number of people in population / desired sample size

### data collection methods

questionnaires (open structured vs close-ended structured), Interviews, diaries, scales (likert, guttman, semantic differential, and visual analog)

### Questionnaires

data collection method which is low cost, little time, anonymous, has no interviewer bias, can not clarify, has a low response rate, and has little control over subject.

### Interviews

data collection method which has a higher cost, takes more time, is not anonymous, has interviewer bias, has a high response rate, can control subjects, and can clarify questions.

### Open-ended questions

Questions that are unstructured, have no predetermined response, provides a depth of response, takes a long time to administer, and is hard to analyze

### Closed-ended questions

Dichotomous question (yes or no), multiple-choice question, "cafeteria" question, rank ordered, forced-choice, and rating questions.

### Unstructured Interview

Interview that is conversational but meant to determine the subjects' perception of phenomenon. It is taped, lasts several hours, and latter transcribed.

### Focused interview

interview that is an encouraged conversation with a set of questions or a topic guide

### Life histories

a narrative self disclosure about ideas and chronological experience regarding a theme

### Think about method

subjects audio-record problem solving and decisions being made over a period of time

### Critical Incidents technique

asking subjects to describe critical incidents related to behavior being studied

### Likert Scale

The most commonly used scale that is composed of a series of favorable and unfavorable statements that the subject indicated their degree of agreement or disagreement.

### Guttman scale

Scale in which items are arranged in a hierarchy. Subject picks a "yes or agree" to all items lower and "no or disagree" to all items higher. often used to test child development.

### Semantic Differential scale

subjects rate concepts on a series of 7 or 8 point bipolar rating scales.

### Visual Analog scale

scale that rates the amount of sensation experienced on a 100mm long line. Score is derived by measuring distance from end of the line to the subjects mark.

### Maximum variation sampling

Purposefully handpicking subjects with a wide variation on the dimension of interest

### Extreme/deviant case sampling

purposefully selecting subjects that are the most unusual or extreme with regard to the dimension of interest

### Typical case sampling

purposefully selecting subjects who are typical or average with regard to the dimension of interest

### Guessing

The subjects tendency to guess when in doubt about the answer to an item. Control by instructing to or not to guess or by using a correction formula

### Social Desirability

Subjects tendency to respond in socially desirable ways or consistent with social mores. Control with anonymity

### Acquiescence

Tendency to consistently agree or disagree with attitudinal statements. control by constructing scales so some items are phrased negative and some are positive.

### Observational bias'

Enhancement of contrast effect, central tendency, assimilatory, halo effect, error of severity

### Assimilatory

Distorting observations in the direction of identity with previous input or data (looking for regularities)

### Projective data collection techniques

Pictorial (thematic apperception test (TAT), Rorschah Test, projective cartoon), verbal (word association, sentence completion), expressive (playing with dolls, drawing, painting, role playing).

### Thematic apperception test (TAT)

subject is given twenty cards that contain pictures and are asked to make up a story about each picture.

### Rorschah Test

subjects are given cards containing pictures of ink blots and are asked to describe the picture

### Word association

Subject is told a series of neutral and emotionally laden words and asked to respond to each word with the first thing that comes to mind.

### Sentence completion

Subjects are given a series of incomplete sentences about an object or event and are asked to complete the sentences

### pros/cons of projective techniques

less susceptible to faking, easy to build rapport with subjects, useful with children, questionable reliability and validity

### Q-sort distribution

data collection method in which the subject is given 50-120 cards with statements on them and are told to sort them into categorical piles.

### Existing data

Data collection method which entails collecting data that has already been gathered (health records, historical research, secondary analysis (data from previous study), and meta-analysis (combining data from several studies)).

### Accessible populations

include who, what, where, and when to make a good representation of the target population.

### bibliography

a complete or selective list of works compiled upon some common principle, as authorship, or subject

### boolean search

searching the web or databases using limiting or expanding boolean terms including: AND OR and NOT

### hanging indent

in citation entries, the first line flush with the margin, each consecutive line is indented 1/2 inch

### parenthetical citation

MLA in text citation typically consisting of the source author's name and a page number or in the case of no author, a key word from the title

### scholarly source

contains the work of experts and academics in a gived field, circulated to a limited, expert audience

### paraphrase

using material from a source in your own words and sentence structures, points are in the order the original author presents them

### summarize

a significantly shortened version of source material that captures main ideas in your own words

### voice marker

phrases indicating whether the writer of the paper is speaking, or if they are using outside source material

### variable

characteristic that may take changing forms called values, eg variable gender: one value is male

### qualitative variable

variable with values that alter in form but not quantity eg gender, eye colour, grade of moxa

### continuous variable

variable that can have unlimited number of possible values eg length, mass, area, temp

### discrete variable

varibale that may only take on specicifc, discrete values eg number of children in a fam, gender, number patients attending a clinic each day

### population

a complete set of individuals/objecfts/measurements having some common observable characteristic eg census that measures all sorts of variables

### random sample

a subset of a population selected so that each member of the population has an equal opportunity of being selected, out of a hat

### statistic

a number resulting in the manipulation of some data according to certain specified procedures eg mean age for students in class, add up all ages and divide by number of students

### parameter

any characteristic of a population that is measureable eg mean age, gender split, number of individuals

### mutually exclusive events

events that cannot occur simultaneously eg being dead and alive at same time

### frequency distribution

placing values for a variable in order of magnitude to show the number of times each is score occurred eg number of visits 1 2 3 4 age 10 11 12 13

### grouped frequency distribution

collapsing measuerment scale so scores assigned to mutually exclusive grouping intervals eg age group 10 to 20, 20 to 30 etc

### Confounding variable

any extraneous variable that changes systematically with the IV and competes with the IV as the effect of the change in the DV

### internal validity

the characteristic of an experiment that allows one to draw accurate inferences about the causal relationship between an independent and dependent variable

### Post test-only design

experimental design that uses a test measure only after presentation of the IV

### selection differences

Differences in the type of subjects who make up each group in an experimental design; this situation occurs when participants elect which group they are to be assigned to or when participants who form the two groups are chosen from existing natural groups

### Pretest-Posttest design

the only difference between this and the posttest only is that this design gives a test prior to introducing the IV to ascertain that the groups were, in fact, equivalent at the beginning of the experiment

### independent group designs

participants are randomly assigned to the various conditions so that each participates in only one group

### order effect

the order of presenting the treatments effects the DV. Types of order effects: practice effects and fatigue effect, contrast effect. To deal with these effects: employ counterbalancing techniques or devise a procedure in which the interval between conditions is long enough to minimize the influence of the first condition on the second condition

### fatigue effect

is a deterioration in performance as the research participant becomes bored, tired, or distracted

### contrast effect

occurs when the response to the second condition in the experiment is altered because the two conditions are contrasted to one another

### counterbalancing

all possible orders of presentation are included in the experiment; by counterbalancing, it is possible to determine the extent to which order is influencing the results; these principles can be extended to experiments with 3 or more groups

### Latin square

a technique to control for order effects without having all possible orders; a limited set of orders constructed to ensure that each condition appears at each ordinal position and each condition precedes and follows each condition one time

### 2 basic strategies of scientific research

Describe the relationship (descriptive designs & Correlational design), Explain the relationship (quasi-experimental designs & experimental design)

### Goal of the experimental research

verify the existence of a cause and effect relationship between two variables

Why? Relationships between variables are complicated; cognitive biases for example

### 2 problems with variable relationships

directionality problem -does the first variable cause the second or does the second variable cause the first?

Third variable problem (alternative explanation)- sometimes we see relationships between variables that don't rule out alternative explanations where a third variable causes both

"A simple description of a relationship does not mean there is a cause and effect relationship" - prof.

### establish cause and effect

Demonstrate a directional relationship between the variables; demonstrate that a change in one variable causes the change in the other variable. How? Manipulate one variable and measure the change in a second variable while controlling extraneous variables (any other variables within the situation we are studying)

### Elements of an experiment

Independent variable (IV), Dependent variable (DV), Experimental Control, randomization

### Independent variable (IV)

the causative variable, we think there is a cause because we have identified a correlational relationship can be manipulated (i.e., has levels)

### What or who determines the levels of the IV?

experimenter - in true experimental design, the levels are selected by the experimenter in experimental designs in quasi-experimental designs, the levels are predetermined (can't change political affiliation or hair color, anything that has been set by nature or selected by the environment, we can't change)

### Dependent variable (DV)

the changed variable - change in variable can be observed and/or measured change is brought about by the IV; doesn't occur in the absence of IV

### Experimental Control

you want to control for everything except for your independent variable; control for any or all procedures that limit the possibility that the observed change in the DV is caused by some other variable that the IV. This is accomplished through random assignments - but still can never guarantee this 100%. When we control the experiment well, we can say that the experiment has high internal validity

### participant variables

includes things like beliefs, characteristics,emotional characteristics, how much sleep they've had

### What are two levels of IV

2 experimental groups: compare a standard level of treatment with other levels of treatments / Placebo (control) group & treatment group: have to make sure everything experiences the same thing - same treatment, etc

### How do you avoid confounding variables / unconfound

evaluate and determine if they will actually confound to issue, keep them constant across conditions; match values across conditions, make them as identical as possible

### Why is it important to make the manipulation as strong as possible?

maximizes the differences between the two groups, increases the chances the IV will be effective for a real world match

### Sensitivity

test has to be strong enough without being too difficult - ceiling and floor effects (best way to avoid these effects is to have multiple measures)

### Solomon 4 group design

has 4 groups: 2 pretest/post-test & 2 post-test only; solves problem of pretest sensitization because it allows us to see if their was a pretest sensitization

### quasiexperimental design

use when a true experimental design can not be used because there are variables we can not change; group/condition has been assigned by factors other than the experimenter; has nonequivalent groups, static groups; used for single subject or program evaluation

### Longitudinal experiment

studies change as a function of age; same group of people at time 1, 2, 3; downsides-mortality, funding, harder to generalize

### Cross Sectional experiment

studies differences as a function of age; same time with different age groups; downsides-cohort effect

### History effects

if you are collecting data over a period of time and something happens in the real world that affects the study by changing attitudes or behaviors

### Types of manipulations

Straightforward: manipulate variables with instructions and stimulus presentations; Staged: staging events that occur during the experiment in order to manipulate the independent variable successfully

### confederate

accomplice, person who appears to be another participant but is actually part of the manipulation

### self-report measures

can be used to measure attitudes, liking for someone, etc; rating scales with descriptive anchors are most commonly used

### Examples of physiological measures

galvanic skin response: measures general emotional arousal and anxiety, electromyogram: measures muscle tension and is frequently used as a measure of stress, electroencephalogram: measures electrical activity of the brain cells

### functional MRI

allows researchers to scan areas of the brain while a participant performs a physical or cognitive task

### ceiling effect

the IV appears to have no effect only because participants quickly reach the max performance level

### demand characteristics

any feature of an experiment that might inform participants about the purpose of the study

### experimenter bias/expectancy effects

experimenters are usually aware of the purpose of the study and thus may develop expectations about how participants should respond

### independent groups design

a different group of participants will be assigned to each of the four conditions

### single case experimental design

used to determine whether an experimental manipulation had an effect on a single research participant

### baseline

in a single case design, the subject's behavior during a control period before introduction of the experimental manipulation

### reversal design

a single case design in which the treatment is introduced after a baseline period and is then withdrawn during a second baseline period; demonstrates 'reversibility'; helps show that the manipulation of the IV had an effect; called ABA design

### multiple baseline design

the effectiveness of a treatment is demonstrated when a behavior changes only after the manipulation is introduced; to demonstrate the effectiveness of the treatment, change must be observed under multiple circumstances to rule out the possibility of extraneous variables

### multiple baseline across behaviors

several different behaviors of a single subject are measured over time

### program evaluation

research on programs that are proposed and implemented to achieve some positive effect on a group of individuals

### maturation effects

any changes that occur systematically over time can cause changes from the pre to post tests

### sequential method

a combination of the cross-sectional and longitudinal design to study developmental research questions

### test-retest reliability

a reliability coefficient determined by the correlation between scores on a measure given at one time with scores on the same measure given at a later time; assessed by measuring the same individuals at two points in time

### internal consistency reliability

the assessment of reliability using responses at only one point in time

### Cronbach's alpha

an internal consistency indicator of reliability; the researcher calculates the correlation of each item with every other item

### appeal to authority

argued that a statement is correct because the statement is made by a source that is regarded as authoritative

### scientific evidence

empirical evidence that supports and is properly documented in accordance with scientific method such as is applicable to the particular field of inquiry

### casual observation

untested, unreferenced statement, conclusion is unreliable; it may not be untrue, but it doesn't follow from the "evidence", eg evidence can be anecdotal in both senses: "Goat yogurt prolongs life: I heard that a man in a mountain village who ate only yogurt lived to 120."

### hypothetical abstract construct

A hypothesis is a proposed explanation for an observable phenomenon, hypothetical: "being assumed to exist as an immediate consequence of a hypothesis,"

### validity

the extent to which a concept, conclusion or measurement is well-founded and corresponds accurately to the real world

### abstract concept made concrete

Concrete thinking involves facts and descriptions about everyday, tangible objects, while abstract (formal operational) thinking involves a mental process

### inter-rater reliability

an indicator of reliability that examines the agreement of observations made by two or more raters

### construct validity

the degree to which a measurement device accurately measures the theoretical construct it is designed to measure

### criterion-oriented validity

assesses the relationship between scores on the measures and an specified outcome

### predictive validity

the construct validity is measured by examining the ability of the measure to predict a future behavior

### convergent validity

the extent to which scores on the measure are related to scores on other measures of the same or similar construct

### discriminant validity

examines the extent to which scores on the measure are not related to scores that measure some other unrelated construct

### naturalistic observation

a descriptive method in which the experimenter observes people in natural settings/ natural social settings

### psychobiography

a type of case study in which the life of an individual is analysed using psych theory

### content analysis

like Lori's coloring book article - examines the subjects and ideas in media/written documents

### response set

when someone goes down the line on a survey and selects one consistent answer every time

### interviewer bias

intentional or unintentional influence exerted by an interviewer in such a way that the actual or interpreted behavior of respondents is consistent with the interviewer's expectations

### confidence interval

an interval of values within which there is a given level of confidence where the population value lies

### stratified random sampling

ensures that the sample matches the important characteristics of the population

### haphazard sampling

take participants any way you can get them; not that representative because they are volunteers

### purposive sampling

type of haphazard sampling conducted to obtain pre-determined types of individuals for the sample

### quota sampling

similar to stratified too; the sample is chosen to reflect the numerical composition of various subgroups in the population; ie: if UAA is 60% men and 40% women, our sample of UAA students would be 40% women and 60% men too but otherwise randomish

### sampling frame

the individuals or clusters of individuals who might actually be selected for inclusion in the sample

### true score

an individual's actual score without anything affecting it positively or negatively; can never get this score

### 3 types of archival research data

statistical records, survey archives, written and mass communications, documents

### content validity

the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest (such as a driving test that samples driving tasks).

### construct validity

predictive, discriminant and convergent/concurrent - the scores on similar types of measures come together and are similar

### discriminant

also called divergent, our scores would be different than on tests that measure different things; can discriminate our construct from all other types of constructs

### correlation coefficient

numerical index that represents the relationship between two variables; -1.00 to +1.00; represented by r

### 2 components of the relationship between two variables

strength -represented by the absolute value of r (0 to 1); direction - positive or negative; represented by the sign of r; direct has a positive sign, indirect is negative (Wesalowski likes terms direct/indirect over pos/neg)

### primary limitation of correlational research

can not assess cause and effect for the most part, can tell us if they are related - no control of extraneous variables, this limitation is referred to as the directionality problem and the thrid variable problem

### directionality problem

can't say which variable causes the change in the other; either variable could be the explanation

### third variable problem

third variable causes both sides of a relationship; heat increases ice cream eating and murder

### good questionnaires

(also applies to an interview) have a purpose/objective (big research question operationalized), short and sweet (solicit essential info only), directions are clear and explicit, include conditional information prior to key ideas (in directions), include transitions between sections, reliable, types of questions, vocabulary, questions short & concise (20 words or fewer), positive slant, consistent response formats within a section, edit questions, clear/specific/objective/forthright, avoid assumptions, avoid leading questions (suggest a right answer), avoid loaded questions (volatile, emotional), avoid double barreled (two questions at once), avoid insulting

### types of questionnaire questions

open ended - advantages: get complete answers, reasoning, and unexpected information / disadvantages: hard to code, answers must be rated (categorized); closed ended - advantages: easy / disadvantage - simplistic answers, forced choices USE BOTH

### sampling techniques

population, sample, representative - sample needs to represent the population, probability and non-probability

### probability techniques

use if accuracy if representativeness is very important; simple random sampling, systematic random sampling (every kth person), stratified random sampling, cluster sampling

### non-probability techniques

use when representativeness is less important, test theoretical hypothesis; experimental designs, don't know who is going to show up to participate; the probability of the population being selected is usually not known because sampling is based on convenience; sample may not truly represent the population, may reduce external validity

### sampling error

amount of discrepancy between population's characteristics and sample's characteristics - random sampling error; smaller is better

### manipulation check

an attempt to measure whether the independent variable manipulation has the intended effect on the participants

### factorial design

A design in which all levels of each independent variable are combined with all levels of the other independent variables. Allows investigation of the separate main effects and interactions of two or more independent variables.

### simple main effects

examines mean differences at each level of the independent variable; the results are analyzed as if we had separate experiments at each level

### Instrument Decay

any decrease in the accuracy of your measurement tool; when you are making observations, sometimes you have raters who get tired or bored

### Statistical regression

aka regression to the mean, extreme scores have the tendency to return to the mean; has to do with the idea that everyone/thing has a true score/innate ability, it's hard to measure because of confounds

### To avoid or mitigate expectancy effects

use automated procedures - rehearse, script; use single and double-blind procedures

### manipulation check question

did you notice anything.....? If they don't mention your IV, your IV did not effect them

### Nonexperimental Research

making observations and asking questions; includes descriptive research, correlational research, Case study, Archival Research, Content analysis

### Correlational research

purpose is to evaluate the strength and direction of the covariation of two variables; relationships and associations

### Concealed observation, nonparticipating

nonreactive, ethical problems if you are doing this in a place where people expect privacy

### Ways to participate in natural observation

Concealed - join the group and not tell the group you've joined and are collecting data; Open - tell the group and get their permission, can get valuable information - the why behind the what, problem: bias - can lose objectivity

### 3 ways to collect data on behavior

ask for self-report, Make direct observations, Record physiological and neurological responses

### two types of error

method - related to the instrument being used; trait - participant characteristics

### increasing reliability - reduce error

many items or observations brings us closer to the true score, eliminate unclear items, standardize conditions, make instructions clear, clear evaluation criteria

### Descriptive statistics -

Mathematical techniques for organizing, summarizing, and displaying a set of numerical data.

### Inferential statistics

term is used to label the portion of statistics dealing with the

principles and techniques that allow researchers to generalize their findings beyond the actual data sets obtained- when based upon sample data but designed to extend beyond the sample, are called statistical inferences

### Non-response bias -

a mid-stream mini-study done to see whether a non-response bias exists to get a feel for whether less-than-perfect response rates will restrict the desired level of generalizability.

### Probability sample

, if each member of the population has at least some chance of being included in the sample, if the probability of any member of the population being drawn is known, the resulting sample is referred to as a probability sample. The four types of probability samples that we will consider are called simple random samples, stratified random samples, systematic samples, and cluster samples (allprobability samples

### Statistical inference

the educated guess as to the population's numerical characteristics is called a statistical inference

### Confidence interval

(I-alpha) The confidence interval is the probability of correctly

concluding that there is no-treatment effect

### One-tailed test -

a hypothesis that specifies a direction; for example, when your hypothesis predicts that your program will increase the outcome.

### Two-tailed test

a hypothesis that does not specify a direction. For example, if your hypothesis is that your program or intervention will have an effect on an outcome, but you are unwilling to specify whether that effect will be positive or negative,

you are using a two-tailed hypothesis.

### Significant

A probability value considered rare in the sampling distribution, specified under the null hypothesis where one is willing to acknowledge the operation of chance factors.

Common significance levels are .01, .05, .10.

### Bonferroni technique

This method is used to insure that the overall experiment wise error rate does not exceed a=.05. Reduces the likelihood of a Type I error.

### Example research question for t-test:

There will be no significant differences between Ele/Sec and HE students with respect to years of full time work experience

### ANOVA

- Analysis of Variance is a Macro level Analysis of difference among or between 2 or more groups.

### One-factor ANOVA

there is only one DV in factorial ANOVA, Factorial ANOVA has two independent variables which are crossed with each other and used as a

treatment on the DV.

### Interaction

Deals with the cell means, not the main effect means in a two-way ANOVA. Interaction exists to the extent that the difference between the levels of the first factor changes when we move from level to level of the second factor.

### Main effect F

There are three values in the F column of a two-way ANOVA. Each of the three F's addresses a different null hypothesis. The first two Fs deal with the two sets of main effect menas. The third F deals with the interaction between the two factors with the focus of this F being on cell means

### Mixed ANOVA

Means one of the two factors is between subjects, while the other factor is within subjects.

### Adjusted means

Any group with an above-average mean on the covariate has it's mean on the dependent variable adjusted downward, while any group with a below-average mean on the covariate has its mean on the dependent variable adjusted upward. These adjusted means constitute the best estimates of how the two groups would have performed on the dependent variable if they had possessed identical mean on the control (i.e. covariate)

variable(s) used in the study.

### Adjusted R2

Indicates the degree to which variability in the dependent variable is explained by the set of independent variables included in the analysis. Adjust R2 is always smaller

than regular R2 , because the adjustment anticipates the amount of shrinkage that would be observed if the study were to be replicated with a larger sample

### Beta weight

a multiplier term added to each predictor variable in a multiple regression equation after the predictor variables have been converted to standard score form.

### Bivariate regression

The simplest kind of regression analysis. It has only 2 variables, one serves as the dependent variable and the other serves as the independent variable. The purpose of this kind of regression can be either prediction or

explanation;

### Multiple regression

A statistical procedure for determining the magnitude of the

relationship between a single dependent variable and 2 or more independent variables. (Regression is used to either predict or explain.)

### Regression coefficient

Y' = a + bX is the regression equation, b is the regression

coefficient. When the regression line has been positioned within the data points of a scatter diagram, b simply indicates the slope of the line.

### Slope

Rise over run" How many predicted units of change (either up or down) in the dependent variable there are, for any one unit increase in the independent variable.

### R

Multiple correlation coefficients used in multiple regression studies, R quantifies the extent to which the regression analysis achieves its objectives.

### R2

Coefficient of determination represents the proportion or percentage of the variability in the dependent variable that has been accounted for or explained by the study's independent variables. (Used in multiple regression analysis.)

### Chi square

A test of statistical significance when the research data are in the form of frequency counts for two or more categories.

### Pearson chi square (X2 )

a nonparametric test of statistical significance that is used when the research data are in the form of frequency counts for two or more categories.

### Dependent variable

related to the measurement / data and it is the variable that we are measuring. The tendency is for this to be the demographic data.

### Mode

A measure of central tendency corresponding to the most frequently occurring score in a distribution of scores.

### Internal Validity Threats Quantitative

Testing, Instrumentation, statistical regression, differential selection, experimental treatment diffusion.

### Internal Validity Threats Quantitative

Compensatory rivalry by the contol group, compensatory equallization of treatments, resentful demoralization of the control group.

### External Validity of Research "Generalizability"

1) Explicit descrition of treatment 2) Multiple treatment interfernece, 3) Hawthron effect, 4) Novelty and disruption effects 4) Experimeter effect, 5) Pretest sensitization, 5) Measurment of dependent variable.

### Meta Analysis

Method designed to increase the reliability of research by combining and analyzing the result of all types of the same product.

### Interviewing

to obtain rich, descritpive data that is complex, subjective and details the particiapnts persepctive.

### When would you use an interview?

Obtain percetions, feelings, attitudes, values. To obtain greater clarity. To build relationships.

### What are some of the strengths of using an interview?

large amount of data quickly, wide range of info, large number of topics, immediate follow- up, allows for observation, allows for checking.

### What are some of the limitations when using an interview?

Not familiar with jargon. Interviwers must be trained listeners and observers. Know hoe to construct converstation.

### What are the three types of Depth Interviews

1) Unstructured-social conv-allows preliminary issues to surface 2) Semi Structured-Reseacher guides sequence, questions, probes. 3) Standardized structured-generally quantitative, tightly controlled, response options, no conversation

### Waht are some of the limitations whe using Depth Interviews?

1) Bias becasue of interactions 2) Cooperation is essential 3) May not be truthful 4) Technique may compromise data

### Qualitative Data Analysis

Long Table Approach-case study focus, group, interviews Content Analysis- Looking for patterns or themes. Coding can be used for both.

### Types of Qualitative Research Design

1) Ethnographic- elicits cultural data 2) Phenomenological- real world, see thru eyes of others and can describe the essences of the experience. 3) Grounded theory-to find a basic problem or major concern.

### Trustworthiness of Data

Credibility (triangulation), Dependability (stability of findings), Conformability(inquiry audit trail), Transferability (thick description), Authencticity( portray-mood, feelings)

### When are case studies used?

1) The reasercher has little control over the events 2) The focus is on contemporary phenomenon within some real life context 3) "How" and "Why" questions are posted.

### A case study is?

an empirical design inquiry that: investigates a contmeporary phenomenon within its real-life context especially when the boudries between the phenomenon and context are not clearly evident.

### What are the four types of Case Study Designs

1) Single case-holistic 2) Single case embedded 3) Mutiple case-holistic 4) Multiple case-embedded

### Type I error

Error of rejecting null hypothesis when in fact it is true (also called a "false positive"). You think you found a cause effect relationship but ONE IS NOT THERE

### Type II error

error of failing to reject a null hypothesis when in fact it is false (also called a "false negative"). You think there is NO CAUSE EFFECT but THERE IS

### cohort effects

Effects of being born and raised in a particular time or situation where all other members of your group has similar experiences makes your group unique from others

### debriefing

giving participants in a research study a complete explanation of the study after the study is completed needed for deception

### deception

in research, method by which participants are misinformed or misled about study's methods and purposes - must be told truth about this in debriefing

### normal distribution

bell-shaped curve that results when values of a trait in a population are plotted against their frequency

### Systematic review, RCT, cohort study,homogeneity, case control study, case report

Types of Evidence and Research

### Systematic Review (including meta-analysis)

a review in which the primary studies are summarized, critically appraised, and statistically combined; quantitative w/specific inclusion/exclusion criteria.

### RCT (Randomized Controlled Trial)

experimental study, random sampling, random assignment to experimental or control group to receive different tx or placebo.

### Cohort Study

prospective (forward in time) study; cohort w/similar condition is followed for defined period of time; comparison made to matched group w/out the condition.

### Homogeneity

Systematic review free of variations in the directions and degree of results b/w individual studies.

### Case Control Study

Retrospective (backward in time) study; group with similar condition compared with group that does not have condition to determine factors that might have played a role in the condition.

### Case Report

Type of descriptive research in which only one individual is studied in depth, often retrospectively.

### Systematic review of multiple RCT's (large N)substantial agreement of size and direction of tx.

Level 1a (A)

### All or none case series. In absence of RCT, overwhelming evidence of substantial tx effect following intro of a new tx. (vaccine)

Level 1c (A)

### Mean

average of all scores (X). Add all scores together and divide by the number of subjects (N). Used for interval and ratio data. Most common measure for central tendency.

### Range, Standard Deviation, Normal distribution, Percentiles and quartiles

Measures of variability; determination of the spread of a groups scores

### SD (Standard Deviation)

determination of variability of scores (difference) from the mean. Subtract each score from the mean, square each difference, add up all the squares, and divide by the number of scores. For interval, ratio data.

### Normal distribution

Symmetrical bell-shaped curve indicating the distribution of scores; the mean, median, and mode are similar. 1/2 the scores are above the mean and 1/2 below.

### Normal distribution

Most scores are near the mean, within 1 SD; approx 68% of scores fall within +1 or -1 SD of mean.

### Frequency of scores decreases further from the mean (Normal distribution)

95% of scores fall +2 or -2 SD of mean.

99% of scores fall +3 or -3 SD of the mean.

### Inferential statistics

allow determination of how likely results of study of a sample can be applied to whole population.

### Standard error of measurement

estimate of expected errors in individual's score; a measure of response stability or reliability.

### Tests of significance

estimation of true differences, not due to chance; a rejection of the null hypothesis. ie. Probability levels or alpha levels.

### Alpha levels (preselected level of statistical significance)

0.05 or 0.01; indicates expected difference is due to chance ie. 0.05, only 5 X out of 100 or 5% chance. P value. Allows rejection of null hypothesis; there are true differences on the measured DV.

### Degrees of Freedom

based on # of subjects and # of groups; allows determination of level of significance based on consulting appropriate tables for each statistical test.

### Parametric statistics

based on population parameters; includes tests of significance based on interval and ratio data. Assume normal distribution in population, random sampling, variance in groups is equal.

### T-test

parametric test compares 2 independent groups created by random assignment and identifies difference at a selected probability level ie 0.05.

### T-test for paired samples

compares difference b/w 2 matched samples; 2 subtests are one-tailed and two-tailed t-test.

### One tailed t test

based on a directional hypothesis; evals difference in data only on 1 end of distribution, either negative or positive.

### Two-tailed t-test

based on a nondirectional hypothesis; evals differences in data on both positive and negative ends of a distribution; tests of significance are almost always two-tailed.

### Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)

parametric test too compare 3+ independent tx groups or conditions at a selected probability level.

### scientific method

series of steps followed to solve problems including collecting data, formulating a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, and stating conclusions

### overconfidence effect

we overestimate our accuracy and our changes of success and ability to predict and explain