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mouth

entrance of digestive system; both mechanical and chemical digestion begin here

pharynx

throat; passageway for food to the esophagus and air to the larynx

epiglottis

small flap that closes entrance to trachea during digestion

esophagus

muscular tube that carries bolus from mouth to stomach

cardiac sphincter

muscle between the esophagus and stomach, prevents acidic gastric juices from flowing up into esophagus

pyloric sphincter

located between stomach and small intestine, controls the movement of partially, digested food.

small intestines

majority of digestion takes place in here, divided into three parts

duodenum

first part of small intestines, most digestion takes place, chemicals released from liver, gall bladder, and pancreas

jejunum

second part of small intestines, absorbs nutrients from digested food

ileum

last part of small intestines, absorbs enzymes and anything left over by jejunum

ileocecal sphincter

Ring of muscles that are between the ileum and the cecum (first part of the large intestine)

large intestines

receives and eliminates waste products from small intestines, absorbs water from remaining bolus

rectum

muscle after the large intestines, temporary storage for feces (stool)

anus

end of digestive tract, opening where feces are expelled

peristalsis

the method used in the esophagus and small intestines to move bolus through

pepsinogen and HCl

two main chemicals released in stomach

liver

organ that produced bile

emulsification

process in which bile breaks down fat

pancreas

secretes pancreatic juice into the duodenum, where it mixes with bile to digest food; also produces sodium bicarbonate, a base that neutralizes stomach acid

gall bladder

organ that stores bile

capillaries

very small blood vessels that absorb nutrients

hepatic portal system

brings blood from digestive system to liver for processing

pepsinogen

released in stomach, reacts with HCl to create pepsin

The inactive form of pepsin that is first secreted by specialized (chief) cells located in gastric pits of the stomach.

ingestion

the process of taking food into the body through the mouth (as by eating)

digestion

The breakdown of complex organic molecules into smaller components by physical and chemical means

absorption

the taking up of digested molecules into the cells of the digestive tract

egestion

the removal of waste food materials from the body

pepsin

Protein digestion - turns proteins into small polypeptides

Also: an enzyme present in gastric juice that begins the hydrolysis of proteins in the stomach

lipase

Enzyme that breaks down fat droplets (emulsified) into: glycerol, fatty acids, and glycerides

salivary amylase

Carbohydrate digestion - turns polysaccharides (starch, glycogen) into smaller polysaccharides (maltose)

pancreatic amylase

enzyme from pancreas that breaks down starch

nucleases

Nucleic acid digestion - turn DNA/RNA into nucleotides

trypsin

Made in the pancreas, _______ turns small polypeptides (once protein) into smaller polypeptides in the lumen of sm. int.

chymotrypsin

Made in the pancreas, and activated by trypsin, _______ also turns small polypeptides (once protein) into smaller polypeptides in the lumen of sm. int.

maltase

enzyme that breaks down maltose in the small intestin

sucrase

enzyme that breaks down sucrose into monosaccharides in the lumen of the small intestine

lactase

enzyme that breaks down lactose into monosaccharides in the lumen of the small intestine

feces

waste product, mostly cellulose, e. coli, water, and bilirubin

ruminates

food that is regurgitated for more mechanical digestion (common for cows, rabbits, etc.)

lacteal

A small lymph vessel located inside of the villi of the small intestine

tongue

forms a bolus (ball) out of the chewed food + pushes it to the back of the mouth into the pharynx

mucus

protects stomach lining from acid, w/o it would be stomach ulcers

fiber

a food substance that provides bulk but is not digested, healthy colon

salivary gland

releases saliva into the mouth

where digestive fluids are added and most of the chemical digestion occurs

why is the duodenum important?

bile

Through emulsification, _______ disperses fat globules into droplets of fat.

villi

absorbs nutrients into the bloodstream; folds in small intestine that make larger area for food absorption into the blood

chyme

paste of food made by physical digestion in the stomach

Larynx

Tube shaped organ at the top of the trachea

Ptyalin

another name for salivary amylase

4-6 hours

Q-How long does food stay in your stomach for?

3 days

Q-Stomach lining is replaced every...

Liver

Q-What is the largest internal organ of the body?

e. coli

what enzyme is found in the large intestines that breaks up cellulose, or plant material?

secum

produce digestive enzymes that break down cellulose; unable to in humans b/c we have a tiny ______

protease

Enzyme that breaks down proteins

nucleotidases

Nucleic acid digestion - turn nucleotides into nucleosides

nucleosidases

Nucleic acid digestion - turn nucleosides into: nitrogenous bases, sugar, and phosphates

gastrin

hormone produced in the stomach wall that stimulates sustained secretion of gastric juice

gastric juices

enzymes, mucus and acid secreted from stomach glands

diarrhea

large intestine doesn't absorb water

constipation

large intestine absorbs too much water

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