english civil war and revolution
it began with the tudor dynast, towards the end of the 15th century 2 families fought over the throne Families: york=white rose and lancaster=red rose called war of the roses it ended in 1485 when henry tudor of lancaster killed richard the III leader of house of york at the battle of brosworth. henry tudor became henry the VII married elizabeth of york to keep peace, the tudor rose combined red and white rose u wouldnt kill ur inlaws
son of queen mary queen of scotts becomes king believed in divine right rule poor use of finances turned to parliament for help he sold title to nobility to make money he ended the war with spain many people feared that he would marry a catholic he bacame the head of the church and gov of england he also refused to act on the puritans requests in 1604 he ordered a new translation of the bible into english aka "King James Bible" he forced the puritans to leave England and died in 1625
son of james I supported divine right rule he opposed the puritans married a catholic (sister of Louis XIII of France) conflict with parliament: he wanted money to stop Spain and France from getting lands parliament did not give him the money so he disolves parliament. he forces landowners to give loans to king (jailed if refused) forced people to house soldiers so they wouldnt have to pay and used military to enforce laws. he then reactivated parliament to control the people parliament forced him to sign a petition of rights which limited the power of the king he again dissolved parliament for 11 yrs ruled w/o parliament he name william laud as his archbishop of canterbury he was also anti puritan. they he encouraged the puritans to migrate also he tried to control scotland by making them accept the church of englands prayer book this created tensions in 1640 the scots invaded england he was then forced to recall parliament again but then disolved them again for 3 weeks and then recalled them in again they limited his power by saying they must meet every 3 yrs they exceuted archbishop laud after the english civil war he was excecuted in 1649.
petition of rights
limited the power of Charles I of England a) couldn't declare martial law. b) couldn't collect taxes. c) couldn't imprision people w/o cause. d) soldiers couldn't be housed w/o consent.
the english civil war
in 1642 parliament sent 19 propositions to king charles I they made them the supreme power of england charles did not except this he led troops to the house of commons (organized army of nobles and landowners roundheads s and e eng. puritans) to arrest the leaders the cavaliers or horsemen aka royalists (house of lords n and w eng.) supported the king during the war the roundheads were supporters of parliament both groups were at odds over money, power, and religion
As Lord Protector of England he used his army to control the government and constituted military dictatorship. Ruled with "Iron Fist"
king charles II
son of charles I becomes king known as the "merry monarch" people did not want military rule so they re-est. monarchy but he did not have absolute power Religious Issues: practiced church of eng., belief was roman catholic, married a catholic. His princess was Catherine of portugal he did not have a legitimate era so it was passed to his brother.
it was passed by parliament laws that made the church of england the state religion. Members could go to universities, serve in parliament, and hold religious services.
King james II
was a roman catholic parliament passed an exclusive bill in 1679 its purpose was to keep catholics off the throne charles the II did not except this they created politial groups whigs- wanted him on the throne, and tories- wanted herideity line= compromise tories agreed to default exclusive bill if the whigs accepted the principle of habeaus corpus he dies and it goes to daughter mary
she marries william of orange (ntherlands) they peacefully gain control it was a non-bloody revolution a peaceful transfer of power. their power became limited by the bill of rights
bill of rights
1) king could not raise taxes
2) King could not maintain a personal army
3) must regularly meet with parliament
4) freedom of speech in parliament
5) individuals rights to appeal, no cruel punishment
1707 Act of Union
queen anne and parliament addressed the tensions between scotland and england result great brittain (protestant granddaughter of king james I)
she married Ernest Augustus of hanover her son george I becomes first king of the house of hanover.
new demands brought to the king, detailing more conditions and wants of parliament, attempt to transfer power from king to parliament- freedom of speech