What is the age of first menstruation called?
What is done at the end of a pelvic exam?
A gloved finger is inserted in the rectum to palpate the posterior surface of the uterus
When is the best time to do a Pap test?
2 wks after the 1st day of your last period
At or after the age of 30, & those women had 3 consecutive normal screenings when will they be screened again?
Every 2-3 yrs unless they have high risk factors for developing cervical cancer
When is it good t schedule appt for pap test?
Not during menstrual period, avoid intercourse for 2 days prior, dont douche 1 day b4, and no vaginal meds for @least 48h
What is a hysterosalpingogram?
A radiographic exam that visualizes the uterus & fallopian tubes
What pt teaching for Abdonimal ultrasonography (Sonogram)?
Instruct pt to drink @ least 1 qt of water 45 ins b4 test, not to void until after test
A full bladder for ultrasound does what?
Elevates the bowel away from the pelvic organs
The primary function of the female breasts are what?
To produce milk, called lactation
PT teaching for breast self exam
examine 3 days after period, move fingers in circles, spokes of wheels, or rows and follow same technique w/each exam, feel every part of the breast including nipple area, ad armpit to the collar bone, look for changes in breast shape, size and contour; puckering (dimpling) of the skin, or areas that appear red, squeeze nipples and look for liquid discharge
What do you omit before a mammogram?
What is the normal volume of ejaculate?
2 to 6ml
What is the average spermatoza per ml?
60 to 100 million per ml
What amount of permatoza is considered infertility?
Fewer than 20 million per ml
What is a digital rectal exam (DRE) performed for?
To assess the prostate for size or evidence of a tumor
When is a DRE recommended?
For men older than 40 to 50 years old
High % of free PSA are assoc more often wit what?
Benign disease for prostate cancer
Low % of free PSA indicates what?
Malignancy for prostate cancer
What are other blood tests that suggest cancer are
elevated blood levels of alpha-fetoprotein, beta-human chorionic gonadatropin (bHCG), & total urine estrogens
What determines if prostate cancer has spread to bones?
Alkaline and acid phosphatase blood tests
What is taken to reduce irritability during PMS?
How much Vitamin B6 is a recommended dose?
Large doses (mega doses) like 500mg of B6 can cause what?
What is vaginal bleeding at a time other than menstrual period?
When androgen therapy is prescribed clients may experience what at first?
Increased bone pain after the 1st few injections
As androgen therapy continues clients will experience what?
Increased appetite, weight gain, fluid retention, increased libido, deeper voice, increased facial and body hair
What medications are used to prevent loss of bone mass in postmenopausal women?
aendronate(Fosamax), risedronate(Actoneil), Ibandronate(Boniva)
What is pt teaching when giving the following medications; aendronate(Fosamax), risedronate(Actoneil), Ibandronate(Boniva)
Do not give oral drugs with milk/milk products, drink 8oz of water when taking, take when rising in the am, dont lay down for @ least 30 mins after taking meds (dyspepsia & esophageal irritation will occur)
What situations predispose to vaginitis?
Antibiotics or frequent douching which eliminates the baccilli that promote an acidic vaginal environment
Who is at more of a risk for vaginitis?
Pregnant women & those w/unregulated diabetes
Nursing Management for vaginitis
sitz baths to relieve itching, burning, & swelling of the vulva & perineum
What are the characteristics of Candida albicans?
Curdy white, thick, strong smell, burning w/urination
What are the characteristics of Trichomonas vaginalis?
Yellow-white, foamy, foul smelling, severe itching
What are the characteristics of Gardnerella vaginalis?
Gray-white, watery, fishy, more discharge after intercourse
Patient teaching for PID before outpatient exam
refrain from douching 48h prior to being examined
Patient teaching for PID admitted to hospital for vaginal smear
inquire if pt has douched w/in last 48h
Toxic shock syndrome is assoc w/what?
After surgery of a vaginal fistula what is considered normal?
Serosanguineous vaginal discharge on the perineal pad
What indicates healing after surgery of a vaginal fistula?
No urine or feces from the vagina
Cervical cancer is associated with what risk factor?
Daughters being born to mothers that took DES (diethylstilbestrol) while pregnant
After abdominal surgery some women develop distention, how is it relieved?
What are assessment finding of vulva cancer?
Puritis & genital burning are most frequent EARLY symtoms